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The subject of love is always the subject of the unconscious analysis, and only in this sense, the following, possibly, He has a right to exist. The following does not apply for any other status, except it is unconscious or analysis — it is better — intuitive synthesis. The following are a number of pretty rambling thoughts, speeding in mind when reading your humble <слугой> poem about. M. <Осипа Мандельштама> “With the world outspread…”
First, let's refresh your memory the text of the poem:
In peace almighty, I was just childish connected,
Oysters and feared guards looked askance,
And no grain of soul I told him not obliged,
No matter how I tortured myself by other people's likeness.
With the importance of stupid, frowning, in miter beaver,
I was not standing under the portico of the Egyptian bank,
And over the lemon Neva under the crunch of hundred-ruble
I never, I never danced a gypsy.
Sensing the future executions, the roar of rebellious events
I ran to the Nereid on the Black Sea,
And from the beauties of the then — from the gentle evropeyanok,
How I made the embarrassment, hurt therewith and grief!
So why is it still dominates this city
My thoughts and feelings of the old law?
He fires still cold impudent,
ambitious, damn, empty, youngish.
Not because l, I saw a baby picture
Lady Godiva with flowing mane ryzheyu,
I repeat it to myself, under surdinku:
“lady Godiva, goodbye… I do not remember, Hodyva…”
The poem is written in 1931 year. Creativity About. M. and, in this way, Russian poetry this year — true annus mirabilis1. In a purely physical sense, in the sense of the specific social and political circumstances in the country, as you all know, while it is quite bad. It is time for a new social order of solidification in a truly state system, time ustervleniya bureaucracy, enthusiasm of the masses — at least, city, having the opportunity to demonstrate his; adaptation time for those, who do not share this enthusiasm, to new circumstances.
The strong degree “With the world outspread…” dictated by the atmosphere. Explain the historical context of a work of art, poem all the more, generally speaking, senselessly. Being determines consciousness of any person, including poet, only until, when consciousness sformirovyvaetsya. Subsequently, it was been formed consciousness begins to determine the existence of, poet — especially. Not only that illustrates this truth in detail, than this poem. And if I, However, I mention the historical context, is to start on a familiar note. In our case it is not interesting, that being dictated, but whom it dictates.
The first eight lines of the poem sound like filling in the questionnaire, as an answer to the question about the origin of. investigation, naturally, filled for confirmation of the right to exist in the new world, more precisely — in the new society. Filling as it seeks to assure a certain Chief of Staff, if not in their loyalty to the new regime, then a minor his involvement in the old.
“In peace almighty, I was just childish connected” It is a reference to the, that the author was born in the ninety-first — and, in this way, in October 1917 g. he was only 26 years old. The meaning of this message is revealed later in the end “Verses of the Unknown Soldier”: “January Birthday… /…ninety-one / unreliability year — and centuries / Surround me with the fire”. But this, possibly, below. Note only, that subsequent remark “nenadežnom” indicates that, that the poet was thinking about the quality of the year, in which he happened to be born. Because he was born in this year, we sit here today and, hundred years later, and because 1931, when it was written, “With the world outspread”, the author was forty, he, from the height of forty, He looks at its twenty-six, during which he has been associated with the world of sovereign.
“childishly” — the keyword for understanding how this verse, and very much in the poetics of Mandelstam. Literal function of this epithet here, in the questionnaire, to absolve themselves of guilt for the fate of an accident, for, by definition, assessment can be made only to, who has different quality. “childishly” said “adults”, for it “adult” fills in the questionnaire. In the future, the first forty years of life, twenty-six of its author seen a period of innocence, inexperienced, if anything. “Adult” by this epithet as it insists, so it is considered an adult, ingrown already in the new social reality, evading responsibility, not only for class alienation, related by birth, t. it is. It is not an act — the fact — his personal will, but also for the most “sovereign world”, turning out the childhood category, naive form of consciousness.
Gekzametricheskaya caesura, immediately following the “derzhavnыm”, It suggests the majesty of this submission in the second half of the line, in fact turns into the antithesis of majesty. Moreover, bass note in the heavyweight “political” It is for reading “childishly” almost falsetto. sonorous, piercingly personal vowels second half of the line as if exposing the deaf, powerful vowels first. About filled not so much didactically, as evfonicheski; and, basically, one of the first line would only be enough already: purely evfonicheski task has been finished.
but the decisive — to terms, for a poem, for Mandelstam's poetics as a whole — role epithet “childishly” is, though, in his didactic function. I do not want to deal with statistics, I will say at random: in ninety cases out of a hundred poems by Mandelstam lyricism obliged to introduce the author in verse fabric material, associated with children's outlook, whether it's an image or — more — intonation. It starts with “so united and so my” and ends with “I was born on the night of the second to the third”. I am unable to prove it, not only because, that this thesis does not need to be proved, but because, first of all, that the abundance of examples exclude -within our conference, at least, — their transfer. add only, that this example is intonation attitude denying (echo, if anything, children, seemingly capricious, but its intensity superior to any expression of acceptance — “I do not want!”) and remit a poem about. M., starting with this note, with antitheses, with “not” and “not”, no need.
“In peace almighty, I was just childish connected” — Another example of this antithesis. Functionality in this application it is obvious, but this is it, purity and authenticity of denial, eventually overturns the poem, rather — his original purpose, bottom up. During the first eight rows, but, it had carried out the author in front of you — or story to the author — task quite successfully.
“Oysters and feared guards looked askance” — will not forget, what is it 1931 year. We are talking about St. Petersburg — or Pavlovsk — end of last, the beginning of this century. “oysters feared” — First of all, no oysters (especially, guards) there is no trace; not, but, and regret for their absence. Selecting the details here is dictated by purely physiological aversion (natural in a child, especially from a Jewish family) and inaccessibility -opyat still purely physical (for the same child, from the same family) appearance and Guardsman status: look askance — view from the bottom up. Dislike this and inaccessibility — absolutely genuine, and because of that poet and includes oysters in your profile, despite their frivolity. In turn, this frivolity — childish, if the infant is not — corresponds to connectedness declaration “derzhavnыm” the world is only at the tender age, t. it is. disconnectedness in adulthood.
The third line — “And no grain of soul I told him not obliged” — cry is maturity, adulthood; exclamation consciousness, not being determined, and, Judging by “No matter how I tortured myself by other people's likeness”, never they do not define. Nevertheless, in “No matter how I tortured myself” — dominated by the same voice: boy, teenager in the best case, from the same family, Lost in impeccable classic perspective of the St. Petersburg street, head, buzzing from Russian iambs, and a growing adolescent consciousness of detachment, incompatibility — although, generally speaking, “on someone else's likeness” It owes its hardness adulthood, inference about his “I”, made retroactively.
With the importance of stupid, frowning, in miter beaver,
I was not standing under the portico of the Egyptian bank,
And over the lemon Neva under the crunch of hundred-ruble
I never, I never danced a gypsy.
In this verse, — really sounds like a detailed, detailed response to questions about social class: “to merchants belonged” — wonderful guessed myself the topography of the city — the action takes place somewhere between the Great Sea and the Palace Embankment. “With the importance of stupid, frowning” — here our poet in a little bit overdoing -pomes caricature photomontage a` la John Hartfield and “window Growth” — from more than mental temptations which he escapes to “miter beaver” young Tenishevsky wit, remarkably combining the miter with cri dernier2 Petersburg architecture of the end of the century — Egyptian portico (there are too, note in brackets, hefty oxymoron). “And over the lemon Neva” It crosses two bridges, and we have somewhere in the Islands, for it is difficult to imagine a gypsy, the dancing — even for the hundred-ruble — immediately on the waterfront: the policeman would not like it.
“citric”, probably, goes to oysters, to the elegant life; but without this winter sunset can give the color of the river surface in, where the action is and where the effect of the fixed all the World of Art before a single. “AND” ties, of course, nouveau riche and entertainment under “crunch hundred-ruble”, but this relationship is not only a literal, cinematographic, For crunch hundred-ruble — wonderful single frame; “and” It acts here also in his capacity as the amplifying Union. We should keep in mind, but, that occurring amplification — not only didactic, condemning the (pretty standard ethical assessment and indeed humiliating scene: merchant walks), but — in the poem scale — even intonation.
By the eighth line almost every poem with recurring gains strofikoy centrifugal force, seeker's permit in a lyrical or purely didactic explosion. In addition to the social commentary, in line “I never, I never danced a gypsy”, with its wonderful visual contrast is extremely important for us here tumbling raven-haired figure in the background static lemon-colored winter river, in the poem there is a theme, to say the least, the opposite sex, which — preceded by breaking at a falsetto “never ever” — and decides ultimately the fate of the poem. Intonation denial as if overfulfils rate (required) and gush of information options, approaching confession. The goal is forgotten, there is only the dynamics of own funds. Means find freedom and find themselves the true purpose of the poem.
“Sensing the future executions, the roar of rebellious events / I ran to the Nereid on the Black Sea…” — the most lyrical and didactic explosion. “Sensing the future executions…” — it is diction, New society unacceptable, outstanding author with a head, and — they complete oblivion of the danger, dictated, first of all, means, he uses. To a certain extent this, of course, another answer to the question “Where were you 1917 year?”, but the answer is really infant, irresponsible, deliberately frivolous, pronounced almost schoolboy: “I ran to the Nereid on the Black Sea”. (And then say: he was then only 26 years old — for himself forty, he then — in the 17th — boy.)
In fact, — This recognition is the, for what is written and the whole poem.
It was written for the sake of this third and last stanza: for the memories. Flashback almost always contains an element of self-justification: in this case the mechanism of self-justification causes a memory effect. Memories are always almost an elegy: its key, roughly speaking, minor; For its theme and occasion for him — loss. The prevalence of this key, t. it is. genre elegy in belles-lettres, due to the fact, and that the memory of the poem are forms of reorganization time: psychologically and rhythmically.
“With the world outspread…” — poem apparently retrospektivnoe, but this is not all. The subject of memories in it, in addition to the heroine of the poem, more precisely — in addition to the specific features of its appearance, is above all else a poem: of the same author and the same addressee. this poem — “Golden honey stream flowing out of the bottle…”, write about. M. at 1917 in Crimea in Sudeikina Faith album, later — faith Stravinsky. but, before we get to it, I would like to finish with the third stanza “With the world outspread…”
Frivolity “nereid”, aggravated speed, with which they occur immediately after “future executions” and “events rebellious roar”, It owes its impression of frivolity innocently, lapidary quality of its lexical “ran away”. In fact, this is not frivolity, but conscious use designation bathers, a would cause an association with Greek mythology, because we are talking about traditional Russian poetic culture as the only interpretation of the Crimea — in addition to the Caucasian coast, Kolhidы, — available to us closer to antiquity. selection “nereid” dictated by the simple fact, the most direct course in the same direction — t. it is. naming Tauridia Crimea — Therefore, in this case, could not afford, if only because, that he did it already 14 years ago.
AND, finally, we come to the two most remarkable in this poem, the lines, caused such varied interpretations have so many commentators: “And from the beauties of the then — from the gentle evropeyanok, /How I made the embarrassment, hurt therewith and grief!” faith Sudeikin — One of the beauties of the then, which passed before he wrote this poem years were treated differently, Come for many of them, in particular for Sudeikina Faith, Stravinsky later, — emigration, moving to Europe. “Evropeyanki tender” means “evropeyanok” not the then, but the current: at time of writing poems staying in Europe. Rhetorical question about “this city”, it poses and still, suggests, What do you want, whom the poet had in mind, the ladies were just St. Petersburg, and that their presence explains and justifies attachment to — and emotional dependency on the author — this city. But we're getting ahead of ourselves.
Plural against “nereid”, Mandelstam-used, It performs the task of conscious, at best unconscious, disorient the reader not only profiles, many poems. In the eyes of the reader the multiplicity of the Nereids, the multiplicity of the then (and we will not lose sight of the element of condescension and resignation, present in this epithet were to become reconcile nedremannoe eye such reader followed by evaluation) beauties more acceptable, rather than only Nereid, rather than only beauty — even the then. Looking again very, very forward, add, that blur the ending of the poem is quite possible is dictated by the same concern about the same nedremannom Oka, under whose authority therefore exist — this the society, Whether in private circumstances,.
From the multiplicity of, of course, poem only wins: wins and the world remembers — not so much silver, -Individual how to author — golden age. more precisely: they did not so much win, Currently, how many plays, overturning the original idea of ​​reconciliation with the new reality and adapt to it, always starts with forgetfulness and renunciation of past. “How I made the embarrassment, hurt therewith and grief!” -Only one appears repeatedly experiences turns the past into an era where more intense mental activity, than now.
All this, however, obviously; and all this in brackets. even to, that in its lexical unit weight “confusedly” superior to other definitions in this context and, therefore, it takes the first place on their list. The brackets would like to make — a little while — embarrassment that has a certain uniqueness, odnorazovost — bo'lshaya, anyway, than hurt therewith and grief. For brackets we find ourselves, considering “With the world outspread…” as a postscript to what is written in the Faith album Sudeikina in 1917, “Golden honey stream flowing out of the bottle…”.
These two poems a lot in common. To begin with in order, iambic dactyl that the first and second iambic same anapaest are essentially our home-bred embodiment rhymed hexameter, as evidenced by their massive caesura. And in general it seems to me, that gravity Mandelstam to hexameter deserves a separate discussion, if you do not study. Every time almost, when it comes to antiquity or tragedy of a situation or feeling, Mandelstam goes to hard tsezurirovanny verse with distinct echoes gekzametricheskim. These are for example “Insomnia. Homer. taut sails…”, “Save my speech for all of the flavor of unhappiness and smoke…”, “There orioles in woods…” or poems in memory of Andrey Bely. The mechanism of this attraction to hexameter — or hexameter to this poet — diverse; it is safe to say only one thing: that he is not the Homeric, not a narrative. With no less safe to say, what, at least, in case of “golden honey…” This mechanism is quite understandable.
Mandelstam resorts to verse in gekzametricheskomu “golden honey…” primarily for, to stretch time. In the first stanza the hostess time to not only make a pretty sprawling observation about life in Tauris, but also the most remark stretches while its content: “we do not miss…”. After that, the verse is still quite slow, to capture a turn of her head.
About it “And he looked over his shoulder” deserves mention. Faith Sudeikin was a woman of striking external qualities, one of the first “stars” then only nascent Russian cinema. Again anticipating strong forward, I note, that the epithet “the then beauty” it does not apply, for even in old age, when I happened to her face, she looked stunning. Together with an autograph “golden honey…”, located so far in her album, She also showed me your picture 1914 of the year, where she filmed it half-turned, looking over his shoulder. One of the photos would be enough, to write “golden honey…”, but the poet been a frequent guest in the house in Koktebel Sudeikin (“Time was very hungry, -Vera told Stravinskaya, — and I'm fed up of his, how could, — tosch, buttoned coat, Nag, pants over naked body, with a chop episode”) and, judging by the line of the Nereids and the last stanza “With the world outspread…” about Lady Godiva with flowing mane ryzheyu, rode naked, according to legend, through the city, I saw her while bathing in the sea.
On the photo, vpoloborota, over bare shoulder at you and pass you by looking woman with her brown, with a bronze tint, hair, which was destined to become the first Golden Fleece, then disbanded ryzheyu mane. Moreover, I think, what “curly riders”, beating in “curly procedure”, — it is a wonderful description of the vine, It brings to mind the Italian art of the early Renaissance, as well as the very first line of golden honey, in his version of the subconscious, — were bronze strands Faith Sudeikina. The same can be said about yarn, which weaves silence at the White House, the same can be added to Penelope, to dissolve it at night, that she was able to weave a day. In the end, the whole poem turns into a portrait “beloved wife all”, waiting for her husband in the house with drooping, lashes, heavy curtains. “Golden tithes noble rusty beds” — part of the same portrait.
Not surprising, that the dancing gypsy haired silhouette against the background of lemon-colored river called up “zolotoe runo”. Or was it a result of the repeated twice “never, never”? Or this very “never, never” recall the “zolotoe runo, where are you, zolotoe runo”? sorrow, sounding here and there, commensurate with the strength. “lady Godiva, goodbye… I do not remember, Hodyva…”, however, even stronger in its doom, and given the failure of the memory and the real destiny of the destination in the English-speaking environment, in their almost prophetic quality.
In other words, fourteen years, with the help of social transformation, the perfect moment becomes lost, gekzametrichesky pyatistopnik anapest converted into gekzametrichesky pyatistopnik dactyl, beloved wife all — in lady, golden age in Tauris -in the tragedy of refusal from forbidden memories. Only the poem can afford to remember a poem. All this is a bit like the story of the second part of Goethe's Faust — including our event with you, happening for the poet and his heroine in the next world.
<1991>
* The text is printed on the publication: Mandelstam Centenary Conference. Materials from the Mandelstam Centenary Conference, School of Slavonic and East European Studies. London. 1991. Hermitage Publishers, Tenafly, 1994.
1 Year worthy surprise (Lat.).
2 Last cry (fashion) (fr.).

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