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1
Mikhail Zoshchenko there is a small story, beginning with the words: “Here are again to blame the author for a new artwork”. Behind this remark of our great ironists worth something very simple and very serious circumstance, that any writer, regardless of his relationship to himself or reality, they described, always apply for the release of their works with some hostile wariness. Special — if it is a works meeting. Special — if several volumes. Special — if life. “Yes, — he thinks, — this is what came”.
In the modern consciousness — both writers, and the reader -slovosochetanie “Collected works” due more to the nineteenth century, than our own. Throughout this century Russian literature, Earn the right to be referred to as, accompanied by a strong sense of its illegality, associated primarily with the fact, that in the context of the existing political system of artistic creativity was, essentially, form of private enterprise — along with adultery, but less common. Be the author's collected works in such circumstances could ever utter scoundrel, a very mediocre writer. Usually, this, however, coincided, not only compromising the very principle of the collected works, as preventing him settle in the minds of the public as her contemporary reality.
Not surprisingly, therefore, if the writer, grew up and formed in the above context,, He feels certain bafflement, revealing his name in the immediate vicinity of the phrase, donating much of the last century. “here, so, which came to, — he thinks. -see, and this century comes to an end”.
2
He was not far from the truth, lies in the fact, that ends much more, than a century. ends, looking at all, protracted in Eurasia between psychological Paleolithic, famous for its faith in the moral process and mating with her penchant for utopian thinking. In place of feeling comes pereogromlennosti and extreme atomization of the individual and social consciousness. Shifting this truly anthropological and literature, his predecessor, fraught with troubles.
Collected works, almost by definition,, designed for the future; and for the future, on the threshold of which Russian literature has appeared today, it is not very well prepared. Approves or criticizing certain moral or social ideals, it may well be for the future of the reader — with its atomized outlook — of interest more antiquarian- nostalgic, than daily. As a way to escape from the reality of it, certainly, will render their traditional service, but an escape from reality — always a temporary phenomenon. A large proportion of out-of-a Russian pen in this century is destined, most likely, the fate of the works of Dumas and Jules Verne: if the literature of the nineteenth century contains for contemporary writer any lesson, it is above all in, that its truths are easily digested by man of our time is already in the age of fourteen.
Added to this is also the, that the twentieth century has been very fruitful and as a writer, and as a publisher. Number of written and published only in the second half of this century, with interest overrides all preceding, taken together, from the moment of printing. future readers, in this way, faced with the choice, unboundedness which has no precedent in human history and contains an element meaninglessness. The literature to date has become a phenomenon of demographic: Providence, apparently, He is trying to preserve the traditional proportion between the number of writers and readers weighing. It is not difficult to imagine why, that the author is coming out into the light of a new work of art can shake his head and quote Zoschenko.
3
But if the author of the three-volume and make it, it is only because of the love for the great ironists. At Nightingale public spaces with thrush prison really a lot in common, but above all, — singing leaping. As Zoshchenko, the author of the assembly works with voice; and this is not so much the fundamental difference between the works, collected in three volumes is placed in front of us, how much of it pass into the foreseeable future. Vote, like fingerprints, always unique. And if the future is really for the atomized consciousness, something unprecedented in its intensity aria human autonomy, sounding in the pages of the works of Hughes Aleshkovskii, destined hall with better acoustics and a fuller, than the current.
4
For purposes of this author musical terminology, perhaps, more appropriate, rather than literary. To begin with, that prose Aleshkovskii — not exactly prose and genre definition (novel, story, story) applicable to it only partially. The narrative style of Aleshkovskii fundamentally vocal, For originates not so much in the story, but in the narrating voice cadence. The plot is in the works Aleshkovskii is a product of and hostage to the cadence of the narrator, and not vice versa, as was the case in the literature for its — we have two hundred — stories. Kadentsyya, again, always unique and is determined purely personal tone of voice of the narrator, It is painted, of course, his immediate circumstances, in particular — its actual or intended audience.
Throughout most of his literary career Aleshkovsky dealt mainly with the latter. In such circumstances, the narrator inevitably feels a strong temptation to adapt their diction to certain averaged normative literary lexicon, refined its long use. Hard to say, that kept Aleshkovskii this temptation: sobriety of his imagination or the authenticity of his gift. Any explanation in this case seem overly complimentary. Most likely, for stylistic manner chosen they should simply view of the author of his audience as a bunch of their own kind.
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If it is true, it is flattering for the audience, and it should now like to thank the collapsed social system in such a democratic intuition of our author. For in the works Aleshkovskii distance, separating the author from both the hero and — the reader, Minimize. This is due primarily to the fact, what — with few exceptions — compositions are Aleshkovskii, essentially, dramatycheskye monologues. More specifically — parts of a dramatic monologue, which merges all the creative activity of the author. In such a situation again, inevitably there is an identification element — primarily for the writer — author with his heroes, while the narrator Aleshkovskii, usually, protagonist. No less inevitable element and reader identification with the hero-narrator.
Such identification occurs generally whenever, when the reader is faced with pronouns “I”, and monologue — an ideal breeding ground for such a collision. If from “I” character reader can still somehow be discharged, then with the author “I” relationship with him a few difficult, For identification with them to the reader is still a flattering side. But, to top it off, Aleshkovskii hero — alone or author, — usually, addresses the reader on “you”. And it's humiliating intimate pronoun works under the pen of our author and the reader wonders, quickly getting to his low-lying nature and thus completely obsessing his attention. Читатель, roughly speaking, feels, he is dealing with someone less worthy, than himself. Driven by curiosity and a sense of indulgence, he agrees to listen to such a companion willingly, than his equal, or more worthy.
6
it has, in the end, semantically atomized form of singing. Singing, in the end, there monologue. Monologue, in the end, always confession. A variety of formal, works belong Aleshkovskii, technically speaking, primarily to the genre of confession. The mechanism of confession, as known, driven by remorse, consciousness of sin, feelings of guilt for what he did, the threat of punishment or torture. In this case the addressee is confession, by definition, It is higher or, at least, more moral, rather than confessing. If the first awakens in the reader's curiosity, the second creates a sense of superiority and, again, the time of identification to the destination.
The advantage of confession as a literary genre is precisely the reader becoming victims, witness and — the main thing — the judge at the same time. Aleshkovskii remarkable narrative, but, the, that their author makes the next logical step, adding to the aforesaid combination style, going back to prison bunks. For the hero-narrator in works Aleshkovskii — always former or potential victim of the criminal code, laying down the story of his life is the language code and area, more precisely, “Tiscali novel”.
The key to understanding the expression Aleshkovskii “squeeze novel” deserves, presumably, separate comment — especially if we bear in mind the reader's future. briefly, “squeeze” here goes to the contemptuous self-irony professional writer, accustomed to the appearance of his works of art in printing and which can afford the luxury of false modesty, based on the absolute sense of superiority over others. “Роман”, in turn, It indicated by mixing the accent on the groundlessness of this superiority and the upcoming modification or deliberate skomprometirovannost once noble genre. How and “Collected works”, expression “squeeze novel” It involves a strong element of fiction — if not simple lie — in the upcoming narrative. In the end, for this phrase lies, presumably, the idea of ​​the novel with the continuation of, coming as standard in the publication type “spark” or “Roman Newspapers”. describes it, as we know, one of the forms of oral tradition, widespread in prisons.
The victim of the criminal code “tyskaet novel” for reasons of a purely practical: in order to increase the soldering, improve living conditions, securing such arrangement surrounding or just to kill time. Of these latter consideration — the most practical and, under favorable circumstances,, “tiskane” the novel is carried out every day, which is equivalent to serialize. narrative material is all, anything. Most often it is a retelling of a foreign film, unknown narrator audience, or really novel — preferably of alien life. The basic outline of the original, usually, saved, but it strung parts and retreat according to the ingenuity of the narrator and the tastes of the public. The narrator is the master of the situation. requirements, presented to him by the public, The same, as in the normal literature, — This is a sharp and sentimental saturation.
7
To paraphrase a famous saying about Gogol's overcoat, Aleshkovsky can be said about, he came out of the prison of his jacket. its audience — by his own definition — they, Who shoulders the overcoat Akaky removed. In other words — We all. “Роман”, “squeeze” Aleshkovsky, — of modern life, and if it is, “overseas” element, then mostly stay on the other side of good and evil. Sentimental richness brought him to the humiliating limits, fiction — to phantasmagoric, he enthusiastically crosses. Dramatic conflicts of his characters are absurd to the degree of authenticity, and vice versa, but recognized primarily by their absurdity. The irony of it — Rabelaisian and destructive, dictated nothing quenches hunger metaphysical author.
Excess solder therefore does not deserve, living conditions have not improved, the location of the audience does not have to rely too: because it either pushes the author of the barracks, either scattered. As for the chance to kill time, they are always low. Besides, as the narrator, Aleshkovsky just grateful every day for the next serialization “novel”, for “squeeze” it nowhere else, except in time. Which in this case seeks Aleshkovsky his monologue? To whom he confesses? For what sings? And if he sings or we hear the voice of his hero? And who, eventually, that his hero, whose voice is so similar to the voice of the author? Whose is the voice we hear?
Vote, we hear, — the voice of the Russian language, who is the main character works Aleshkovskii: Its main character and the main author of the. language voice is always the voice of consciousness: national and individual. It is this voice, Russian voice of consciousness -oskorblennogo, brutalizovannogo, criminalized national experiences, priblatnennogo, snap, mocks himself and his insights and, so, not completely destroyed — It sounds from the pages of the three-volume.
In addition to its function voice of consciousness language is also an independent element, wherein the ability to resist all-consuming existential nightmare above, than that consciousness as such. therefore, Need to think, Recently, because language and relies. Say about Aleshkovsky, he owns elements of this perfection, it would not be so commonplace, as inaccurate, for he himself is this element: its energy, horizon, bottom and inexhaustible promise of freedom at the same time. In the Criminal Code of the victim, “squeeze” in shacks novel, another embodiment of freedom, except for the language, not. The same applies to the human consciousness within the existential trap, except perhaps that the purely religious means of escape from reality.
However, including their, For the religious consciousness requires language — at least, to present their needs, in particular, to pray. Quite possible, what, as the voice of human consciousness, tongue, at all, in all its manifestations, It is prayer. This assumption is fully in the spirit Aleshkovskii, which the, along with perfect pitch, It has also a unique metaphysical instinct, exhibited by virtually every page. It should be called organic metaphysician, if the language with its expansion, centrifugal principle of the development of speech was not the driving force of the organics. And the tongue — any, but especially Russian — It indicates the presence of a human being is much more metaphysical potential, than, that offered religious feeling, let -doktrinoy. Language is a demand, religious beliefs — just a suggestion.
The foregoing is not an assault on the laurels of our metaphysical author. This person, hearing Russian language, Mozart, I think, first — and gladly — recognizes the primacy of the material, a voice which he has been operating for more than three decades. He writes not “about” and “about”, for he wrote of language music, It contains all existing “about”, “about”, “for”, “vs” and “in the name of”; more precisely — Russian language writes itself hand Aleshkovskii, guide boundless energy in an intelligible language channel for the reader content. Aleshkovsky first — and gladly — ascribe their language often startling insights, which are full of pages of this collection, and, probably, first try to remove the same from language responsible for crazy tortuosity of the channel and its numerous tributaries.
Simply put, in the face of this author, we are dealing with a writer as a language tool, and not with the writer, using language as a tool. In the Russian literature of the twentieth century such cases no longer, than in the Russian literature of the past century. We were two: Andrei Platonov and Mikhail Zoshchenko. In the nineteenth, apparently, only Gogol. In the twentieth century, and the third is Aleshkovsky, apparently, last, because age really comes to an end, despite the abundance of the grown talent.
Writing under the dictation language — rather than dictating language — issues, of course, thereby Orphic, more precisely melicheskuyu, the nature of his work. Aleshkovskiy gives it more, than anyone, and makes it literally — in the third volume of the assembly. before you, women and gentlemen, authentic Orphics: poet, completely subordinated themselves the language and received from his bounty reward the gift of revelation and Homeric laughter, liberating human consciousness for independence, to which it is bound by nature and history, and are perceived as loneliness.
New York, 1995

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