About tyranny

Illness and death — here, perhaps, and all, that have in common a tyrant to his subjects. Even in this sense, is beneficial to the people, to old rules. Not that the idea of ​​the inevitability of death, be sure to educate and temper softened, but time, tyrant spent thinking about their own, let us say, metabolism, have time, taken away from the affairs of state. and internal, and international periods of calm are directly proportional to the number of diseases, chewing your General Secretary or president for life. Even if he has enough receptivity to learn the art of callousness more, who taught all diseases, he is in no hurry to use this acquired skill to the palace intrigues and foreign policy, not least because, instinctively tends to return to its original healthy state, and even believes, that a full recovery.
At the time of the tyrant, allotted to think about the soul, It used to calculate, how to maintain the status quo. This is because, that a person in his position do not see the difference between the present, history and eternity -gospropaganda alloy them together, because it's more convenient and most tyrant, and population. He holds on to power, other elderly people for their pensions and savings. the, which sometimes seems to purge the summit, It is perceived by people as an attempt to maintain stability, which some people had hoped in the first place, when allowed to strengthen tyranny.
Stability pyramid rarely depends on its top, but still it is the top of our attention. Sooner or later the eyes of the observer tired of her intolerable geometrical perfection, view requires change. However, when changes occur, they are almost always for the worse. Old man, fighting for, to avoid embarrassment and inconvenience, which are particularly troublesome in his age, at least, quite predictable. No matter how vile and evil or he looked in this fight, it does not affect any internal structure Pyramid, either on its outside drop shadow. Yes, and this, with whom he fights, opponents, They deserve abuse, at least for the tautology of their ambitions when the age difference. For politics is nothing more than, As a pure geometry, combined with the law of the jungle.
There, at the point of a needle, enough space for only one, and even though it is better to be old, as old men do not pretend to be angels. The only problem is the aging tyrant — to maintain its position, his demagoguery and hypocrisy do not suppress the minds of citizens need to believe in them or textual diversity; while the young upstart with his real or feigned zeal and determination always ultimately increases the level of public cynicism. Looking back at the history of mankind, we can confidently say, cynicism — the true measure of progress.
For the new tyrants always bring a new mixture of hypocrisy and cruelty. Some more click on cruelty, Other hypocrisy. Recall Lenin, Hitler, Stalin, Mao, Castro, Gaddafi, Khomeini, Amine, etc.. They are always far superior to its predecessors and a new arm-twisting to its citizens, as, however, and brains observers. anthropologist, onlooking (and at a very considerable distance, of course), this type of development is of great interest, for expanding our understanding of the possibilities of the human species. It should be noted, However, the described process depends not least on the technical progress and the general population growth, than from exceptional malignancy of the dictator.
Nowadays, all the new social and political system, as democratic, and authoritarian, gone further from the spirit of individualism, herd for mass onslaught. The idea of ​​the existential human exceptionalism is replaced by the idea of ​​anonymity. Personality dies not so much by the sword, but on the penis, and, no matter how small your country, it requires (or becomes subject) central planning. Such circumstances easily generate one or another autocracy, What are the tyrants in the context can be considered as obsolete computers sample.
But if they were only a sample of obsolete computers — it's still all right. The trouble is that, that tyrants are able to acquire new, state of the art computers, and strive to use them. Examples of operating an outdated model of modern technology: Shikelgruber, mastered the microphone, or Stalin, Use the telephone wiretap to eliminate their opponents in the Politburo.
People become tyrants, not because, that experience to this vocation, but not by pure chance. A man with a similar vocation usually prefers short way and tyranny own family, whereas the real tyrants are usually shy and generally awful boring everyday life. Instrument of tyranny -political party (or the army, whose structure is different from the party), for in order, to climb to the top of something, You need to have something, What is peculiar to the vertical topography.
In contrast to the mountains or, rather, skyscraper, Party essentially -fiktivnaya reality, invented intelligent (or ordinary) unemployed. They come into this world and show, that his physical reality, its mountains and skyscrapers, all are already occupied. Thus the choice in front of them — wait, until space becomes available in the old system, or create your own new, alternative. The latter method seems to them more rapid, not least because, you can not start putting. Create party — already self-sufficient activity, and at the same time consuming. It, of course, It does not bring immediate fruit; but in other way, not a difficult job for the psyche is very comfortable due to incoherence aspirations.
For, to conceal their origin purely demographic, Party usually creates its own ideology and mythology. Generally, A new reality is always created on the model of the old, imitating existing structures. With the help of this technique at the same time hiding the lack of imagination and the entire enterprise is given a kind of haze of authenticity. here, by the way, why the public is so fond of realistic art. General lack of imagination is longer, than his presence. Buzzing boredom party program, Gray, inconspicuous appearance of its leaders attracted the masses like his own reflection. In the era of overpopulation evil (just as well) just mediocre, their subjects. Do you want to be a tyrant — be boring.
And they are boring, and their life is boring. Only their joy they receive in the course of climbing, when they see, that managed to outwit an opponent, push, bust. In the beginning of the century, in the heyday of political parties, there were more fun — release, let us say, which neither is a pamphlet, escape from police, utter a pep talk at the underground Congress, relax by the party in the Swiss Alps or on the French Riviera. Now it is all in the past: acute problems, false beards, Marx shtudirovanie. All, what's left,– it is the expectation of, endless tape, filing and seeking out those, on whom you can rely on. Even his tongue to keep interested, because still with him will not break anything worthy of attention listening devices, which since the walls around you.
Slowly moving time — this is what leads to the top. Comforting only here, thereby across the enterprise gives a feeling of authenticity: for that, it takes time, really. Advancing slowly even when the party is in opposition; with regard to the ruling party, then it altogether hurry: after half a century in power, it has the ability to manage time. Sure, in terms of ideals, Victorian sense of the word, one-party system is not very different from the modern forms of political pluralism. But still, to join the only existing party, it is necessary to have more than an average margin of dishonesty.
However, no matter how cunning and no matter how crystal clear it was not your own business, before sixty in the Politburo will not get. And in this age of life is absolutely irreversible, and the, who grasped the reins of government, razozhmet fists only requiem candles. Sixty people hardly dare to anything economically or politically risky. He knows, he left ten years, and his joy — gastronomic or technical nature: luxury diet, foreign cigarettes and foreign same cars. He is a man of the status quo, what, of course, favorably in international relations, as the rocket arsenal it has been steadily increasing, but intolerable in the country, where doing nothing means worsening of existing conditions. Although the latter circumstance can take advantage of his rivals, he would rather eliminate them, than propose any changes. It is always easy feel nostalgia for that order of things, which led you to success.
The average duration of a good tyranny — ten or fifteen years, twenty most. Beyond that limit will inevitably slipping into something quite monstrous. Then we deal with the greatness, manifested in the outbreak of war or terrorism in the country, or a combination of both. Nature, thank God, takes its, sometimes, true, using as a tool of its rival tyrant, and, usually, during, t. it is. before our hero conceives immortalize his name than any nightmare. young cadres, which does not so young, click below, pushing it into the blue beyond pure Chronos. As with the top of the pyramid to move further, you can only have in this direction. It is also true, that nature often has to act alone, monstrous meeting resistance from the public security organs and the team of personal doctors tyrant. From abroad, fly planes with foreign experts, to fish for our hero from the depths of insanity, in which he plunges. Send their own government is deeply interested in preserving the status quo. Sometimes foreign doctors succeed in their humanitarian missions so, that the great man back enough strength, to face the loss of their country.
In the end we all lose heart. In organs, perhaps, less likely, than the doctors, because the medical hierarchy is not so dependent on the forthcoming changes. But even the authorities eventually get tired of the owner, which they will survive one way or another, and the guards turn away, and the door slides death with a scythe, hammer and sickle. The next morning people wake not punctual roosters, and pouring from loudspeakers wave “funeral march” Chopin. Followed by a funeral with military honors, Horse pulling carriage, in front of a platoon of soldiers marching, bear the scarlet cushions medals, adorned jacket tyrant, like chest dog-medalist. For that is exactly what, as it was,– dogs, win a prize, Win Greyhounds. And if the population is mourning his death, as often happens, tears of those, who gambled and lost: nation mourns the lost time. And then there are the members of the Politburo, propping his shoulders red cloth covered coffin, the only common denominator between them.
As long as they carry their dead denominator, pop and click camera, and foreigners and the local staring intently into the impervious face, trying to guess successor. maybe, the deceased was so vain, I left a political testament, but it still will not be published. Decision would be taken in secret, in closed (for the population) Politburo. That is underground. secrecy — old passion party, echo its demographic origin, illegal glorious past. So that individuals do not express anything.
This is especially possible to them, because there is nothing to express. Because it will be back all the same. New differs from the old only in appearance. And spiritually, and in other respects, he will become an exact copy of the deceased. it, perhaps, It is the most important secret. If you think about it, changes within the party — It is the only form of resurrection, available to us. Sure, repetition creates boredom, but if it takes place in secret, it is not without entertaining.
The most amusing — this is when the uptake, that any of these people can become a tyrant. All the confusion and uncertainty only because, that supply exceeds demand. Because of, that we are not dealing with the tyranny of individuals, and the tyranny of the party, which simply put the production on an industrial basis tyrants. That on her part was very clever in general and very appropriate in a particular, Considering, how fast losing ground individualism. In other words, in our time guessing “someone someone will” — the game is just as romantic and old-fashioned, as the cup and ball: it can be entertained only those, who has been chosen freely. Long past the time the Eagles profiles, beards wedge or shovel, walrus whisker-like or like a toothbrush, soon eyebrow thing of the past.
Yet there is something fascinating in these empty, gray, nothing remarkable faces: they look like all, that almost gives them a shade of the underground; they are the same, like grass. Visual monotony gives additional depth to the principle “People's government”: Here is the right one. But when you rule one, It is the most comprehensive form of tyranny, because no one look like all. In many ways, they are mass-here why they do not need to hold elections. Indeed a thankless task for the imagination — think about, to any possible outcome of the system would lead “one man — one vote”, let us say, China, with its one billion people: which Parliament would have made there and how many tens of millions of people would be in the minority.
The heyday of political parties at the beginning of this century, was the first sign of overcrowding, why they are doing well and in our days. While individualists over them teased, they are gaining strength in the depersonalization, and individualists now no longer a laughing matter. The purpose of the parties, However, It is neither own triumph, nor the triumph of the individual bureaucrat. Right, that they were ahead of their time, but always a lot of time in front of all, especially people. their goal — adapt own quantitative proliferation to retain the same size of the world, and the only way to achieve this goal — through depersonalization and bureaucratization of all life. Life itself is the common denominator; sufficient basis for further organization of the existence.
Here also is engaged tyranny: can organize your life. She does it with care naivozmozhnoy, so far the best, than democracy. And she's doing it for your own good, For any manifestation of individualism in the crowd can be dangerous: primarily for, who takes his, but also about, who's next, also need to think. That is why there is a government led by the party, its security forces, mental hospitals, the police and the citizens of devotion. Yet even all of these institutions is not enough: Ideally everyone should become a bureaucrat himself. Day, when this dream will become a reality, closer and more visible. For the bureaucratization of individual existence starts with a reflection on the policy and does not stop with the acquisition of a pocket calculator.
So if someone is set to elegiac funeral tyrant, it is mainly for reasons autobiographical and therefore, that such death gives greater specificity nostalgia “good old days”. Finally, the deceased was also a product of the old school, when people still felt the difference between, what they said and what they did. If no more than one string to it will be set aside in the history of, all the better: so, among his subjects he does not perpetrate enough bloodshed, that had accumulated on the whole paragraph. Mistress had been inclined to be overweight and few. He wrote little, likewise I did not draw or play a musical instrument; also introduced a new style of furniture. He was just a tyrant, but still the leaders of the great democracies badly wanted to shake his hand. Shortly speaking, Do not overdo it, and this is partly thanks to him, opening the window in the morning, we see, that the horizon has not stood on end.
Due to the nature of his work, No one knew, what he thinks really. Quite possible, that he did not know, what he really thinks. It might be a good epitaph for him, do not be a joke, that the Finns talk about the will of their life president Urho Kekkonen. It begins with the words: “If I die…”
* Authorized translation from the English Lev Losev

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Joseph Brodsky
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