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On a par with the ground, water, air and fire, — money is the fifth element, with which man often reckoned. This is one of many -perhaps, even the main — of reason, what today, a hundred years after Dostoevsky's death, his works are still relevant. Taking into account the vector of economic evolution of the modern world, ie. towards general impoverishment and harmonize living standards, Dostoevsky can be regarded as a phenomenon of prophecy. For the best way to avoid mistakes in future forecasts — is to look at it through the prism of poverty and guilt. It is this and optics used by Dostoevsky.
A passionate admirer of the writer Elizabeth Stackenschneider — St. Petersburg society lady, the cabin is in the 70's and 80's of last century gathered writers, suffragettes, politicians, artists, etc.. P.,– I wrote in 1880 year, ie. a year before the death of Dostoevsky, in his diary:
“…but he's a tradesman. Yes, philistine. not a gentleman, not seminarian, not the merchant, not casual man, like the artist or scientist, namely wimp. And this wimp — a deep thinker and a writer of genius… Now, it is often in the aristocratic homes and even in the grand and, of course, He keeps himself everywhere with dignity, and yet it lurks philistinism. It lurks in some of its features, notable in the intimate conversation, and most of all in his works… Larger capital for huge numbers will always be six thousand rubles for it”.
Это, of course, not quite right: in fireplace Nastasia Filip in “You idiot” several large amount of flies, than 6 thousand. On the other hand, in one of the most hysterical scenes of world literature, always leaving a painful mark on the reader's mind, Captain Snegirev trampled into the snow is not more than two hundred rubles. Heart of the Matter, but, in, that notorious 6 thousand (now it is about 20 one thousand dollars) it was enough, to spend about a year in decent conditions.
social group, which Ms Stackenschneider — product of social stratification of its time — It calls philistinism, now it called “middle class”, and it is determined by the group rather than caste origin, as the size of annual income. In other words, The above amount does not mean either insane wealth, no abject poverty, but simply human conditions tolerable: t. it is. these conditions, that make a man — man. 6 thousand essence the cash equivalent of a moderate and normal existence, and if to understand it, you have to be a philistine, the petty bourgeois hurray.
For aspirations of the majority of humanity is reduced to this — to achieve normal human conditions. Writer, which six thousand represented a huge amount of, in this way, It operates in the same physical and psychological plane, and that the majority of society. In other words, He describes life in her own, public categories, insofar as, as well as any natural process, human existence tends to moderation. And vice versa, writer, belonging to high society or social Nizam, inevitably gives a picture, to some extent distorted, for in both cases he examines the life of a too acute angle. Critics society (that is like a synonym for life) as a top, and the bottom can make fascinating reading, but only a description of its inside is able to give rise to ethical requirements, with which the reader is forced to reckon.
Besides, writer position, belonging to the middle class, quite shaky, and because it is a heightened interest in watching what is happening at the levels, lying below. Respectively, everything, what happens above, deprived for him — thanks to the close physical proximity -oreola mystery. At least, purely numerical writer, belonging to the middle class, It has to deal with a wide variety of problems, that extends its audience. Anyway, this is one of the reasons for the wide popularity of Dostoevsky — as, however, i Melville, Balzac, Hardy, Kafka, Joyce and Faulkner. Seem to be, that the amount of 6 thousand becomes something of a guarantee of great literature.
Problem, but, in, that to get the required amount is much more difficult, than “make” millions, or than eke out a miserable existence, — for the simple reason, that the rule always generates more applicants, than the extreme. The acquisition of the aforesaid amount, as well as its half or even a tenth of, It requires a person much more mental effort, rather than some kind of a scam, leading to an immediate enrichment, or, on the other hand, any form of asceticism. Moreover, more modest than the desired amount, the more emotional costs associated with its acquisition. From this point of view clear, why Dostoevsky, in whose works the labyrinth of the human psyche plays such an important role, thought 6 thousand colossal sum. For him, it is tantamount to enormous mental effort, enormous variety of nuances, the enormous literature. In other words, we are talking about is not so much real money, how many metaphysical.
All his novels, almost without exception,, deal with people in straitened circumstances. Such material is already in itself a guarantee of an exciting read. However, a great writer Dostoyevsky did not because of the inevitable plot twists, and not even because of the unique gift to the psychological analysis and compassion, but thanks to the instrument or, precisely speaking, physical composition of the material, he used, t. it is. thanks to the Russian language. What is in itself — as, however, and every other language -extremely strongly resembles money.
As to the intricacies, the Russian language, in which the subject is often snuggles into the end of the sentence, but it is often not covered in the main message, and its subordinate clause, — like for them and created. This is not an analytical English, with its alternative “either or”, — it is the language of the subordinate concessive, is the language, zyzhduschyysya on “although”. Any set out in the language of this idea immediately turns into its opposite, and there is no syntax for Russian lessons more exciting and enticing, than the transfer of doubt and self-abasement. Polysyllabic character dictionary (the average Russian word consists of three or four syllables) reveals the primary, the spontaneous nature of the phenomena, reflected word fuller, than by any reasoning was persuasive, and often writer, gathered to develop his idea, suddenly stumbles over the sound with his head immersed in the experience of the phonetics of the word — that takes its arguments in the most unpredictable side. In Dostoevsky's work clearly felt sometimes reaches sadistic intensity stress, generated by continuous contact of metaphysical topics with the metaphysics of language.
Of disorderly Russian grammar Dostoevsky made the most. In his feverish phrases heard, hysterical, unique individual rhythm, and in terms of content and style of his speech — crushing psychoactive fiction alloy spoken language and bureaucracy. Of course, he was always in a hurry. Like their heroes, he worked, to make ends meet, in front of him all the time loomed lenders and publishing deadlines. At the same time, we note, that person, cornered terms, it is extremely common digress: it can be argued, his retreat is often dictated by the language itself, rather than the requirements of the plot. Simply put: reading Dostoevsky, know, that the source of the stream of consciousness — not conscious, in a word, which transforms the mind and changes its direction.
Not, he was not a victim of the language; but he displayed a partisan interest in the human psyche goes far beyond the Russian Orthodox Church, with whom he identifies himself: syntax much more, than faith, extent determine the nature of addiction. Every creation begins as an individual striving for self-improvement and, Ideally, — to holiness. Sooner or later — and sooner, than later — writer finds, that his pen achieves much better results, than the soul. This discovery often involves painful soul dichotomy, and that it is the responsibility of the demonic reputation, where literature enjoys in some widely divergent circles. In fact, in a sense, the way it is, For seraphim loss — it is almost always a godsend for mortals. In addition, any extreme in itself always boring, and a good writer always hear the dialogue of the celestial spheres with the abyss. But even if this dichotomy does not lead to physical death of the author or a manuscript (about what — 2-Volume hoholevskyh “dead souls”), precisely because it is born writer, sees its task in reducing the distance between the pen and the soul.
In that — all Dostoevsky; though, but, that his pen constantly supplanted the soul beyond the orthodoxy preached to them. For it to be a writer inevitably it means to be a Protestant or, at least, use human Protestant concept. And in Russian Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism human judges Almighty or His Church. In Protestantism man himself creates a semblance of the Last Judgment, and in the course of this trial, he to himself far more ruthless, than the Lord or even church, — if only because, what (according to his own conviction) he knows better, what God and the Church. And because, he does not want, more precisely — can not forgive. Insofar as, but, no author writes exclusively based on his parish, fictional heroes and their deeds deserve fair and equitable trial. The more thorough the investigation, the more convincing work, — But a writer first and foremost to the credibility it seeks. In the literature, the sanctity itself is not too appreciated: because some old man in Dostoevsky and stinks.
Of course, Dostoevsky was a tireless defender of Good, I mean Christianity. But if you think about it, there was no evil and advocate a more sophisticated. In classicism he had learned important principles: Before presenting his case, how much you feel you are not a right, and even the righteousness, you must first list all the arguments of the opposing party. It's not even, that in the process of transferring the refuted arguments can lean on the opposite side: just a transfer process itself is quite fascinating. Finally, and you can stay at their beliefs; but, highlighting all the arguments in favor of Evil, true Faith postulates pronouncing already rather nostalgically, than with zeal. what, however, also increases the reliability of.
But it is not alone for the sake of reliability of Dostoevsky's heroes with almost Calvinistic tenacity reveal the soul of the reader. Something else makes Dostoevsky to turn out their lives inside out and looking at all the folds and wrinkles of their mental ins and outs. And it is not the pursuit of truth. For the results of its Inquisition reveal more, something superior truth itself: they reveal the primary fabric of life, and this unsightly cloth. Pushing it to a force, whose name — omnivorous voracity language, which becomes a little God one day, man, reality, guilt, of death, infinity and Rescue, and then he pounces on.

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