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I
Written in 1904 by Rainer Maria Rilke poem “Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes” makes me think: and if there was any major works of the century it created ninety years ago? Its German authors at this time was twenty-nine years; he led, generally, vagabond life, which led him first to Rome, where this poem was begun, and then, in the same year, — Sweden, where it has been completed. Nothing more, no need to talk about the circumstances of its origin — for the simple reason, that in its totality it is not equivalent to any human experience.
undoubtedly, “Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes” — in the same way as an escape from the biography, as well as by geography. from Sweden, best case scenario, here was scattered gray gloomy light, enveloping the scene. From Italy -and even less, not counting the frequent assumption, the pen is pushed Rilke bas-relief of the National Museum of Naples, depicting the three heroes of the poem.
Bas-relief of a real, and the assumption is, possibly, It has reason, but, it seems to me, conclusions from it would be unfruitful. For this work in marble there in equally innumerable copies, as the most dissimilar one to another variation of this myth. To associate the aforesaid relief of the poem and to personal circumstances Rilke, should provide evidence, the poet, let us say, I saw physiognomic resemblance between the marble female figure in bas-relief, and either his wife, sculptor, by this time he was left, or — even better, -his main love — Lu-Andreas-Salome, which by that time had left him too. But on this score almost any data we have. Yes, if we had even the mass of such data, from them there would be no use. For a particular union or its decomposition may be of interest only as long as he avoids metaphors. As soon as a metaphor, it takes all the attention on himself. Besides, features all the characters on the bas-relief seem to be too generalized — as befits the mythological story, which over the past three millennia in the merciless amount ranged all kinds of art, — to see in them a hint of the individual.
The alienation of the same, on the other hand, stronger every, and the poem is written in part on alienation. And it is this part of her it owes its enduring appeal — especially, that it deals with the essence of this feeling, instead of its specific embodiment,, reflected in the difficult fate of our poet. In general, the meaning of a poem — a fairly common phrase, formulates the essence of this feeling, which is the following: “If you go, I will die”. technically speaking, our poet in his work just made his way to the far end of this formula. And so at the very beginning of the poem, we find ourselves right in the world to.
II
If we talk about the bizarre fantasies, then a visit to the grave are in the same way as the great-plot, as the first visitor, he who inflicted, Orpheus -pra poet. And therefore, this story of ancient times is not inferior to the literature as such,, maybe, even precedes it.
Despite the obvious appeal of fantasy about this walk “roundtrip”, its origins — not fictional. they are related, I think, fear of burial alive, quite common even in our time, but, it is easy to imagine, all the rage at the time it, with its deadly epidemics — in particular, cholera.
If we talk about fears, the aforesaid — no doubt the product of mass society or, anyway — society, in which the ratio between weight and its individual representatives generates the relative indifference of the first real-finals last. In time, it could provide a proportion, mainly, urban settlements and, possibly, military camps — still fertile ground for the epidemic and to the literature (oral or neustnoy), as required for the dissemination of both crowds.
Not surprisingly, therefore, that the theme of the earliest extant works of literature served as a military campaign. In several of these works there are different versions of the myth of the descent into hell and the subsequent return of the hero. This is connected with the fundamental frailty of all human endeavors — especially, war, and, equally, with the congeniality of the myth — with his good one end -povestvovaniyu about the loss of life on a massive scale.
III
The notion of the underworld as a branched, like subway, underground structure, probably, born under the influence (virtually indistinguishable) limestone landscapes of Asia Minor and the northern Peloponnese, izobiluyushtih peshterami, which in prehistoric, and in historical time were human habitation.
Topographic complexity of the underworld suggests, that Hades is essentially an echo dogorodskoy era, and the most likely area, which could arise given representation, an ancient Cappadocia. (In our own civilization the most distinct echo of the cave, with all its allusions Otherworldly, obviously, is the cathedral.) After all, any group lescher Cappadocia could well serve as a shelter for the population, in numbers corresponding to the modern small town or large village, and the most preferred, probably, It took place close to the open air, and the rest settled farther and farther away from the entrance. Often these caves winding gallery for hundreds of meters go deep into the rocks.
Looking at all, least accessible of them were used for residents of warehouses and cemeteries. When one of the members of the community died, body is carried to the far end of the cave network and laid it out there, and the entrance to the tomb stones obscured. From this starting point it was not necessary to strain the imagination, to present, as caves deeper penetrate into porous limestone. Generally, all finite suggests infinity much more, rather than vice versa.
IV
Through, let us say, three thousand years of continuous operation of the imagination that's naturally likened to space underworld abandoned mine. The first lines of the poem reveal the extent of our familiarity with the idea of ​​the kingdom of the dead, which to some extent have lost the novelty or fell into disuse because of the more urgent matters:1
That was a strange unthinkable Mine shower.
AND, mutes both strands silver ore,
they hovered through the darkness…
The word strange (strange) It invites the reader to abandon rational approach to the story, translation and replacing wunderlich (wonderful) a stronger unfathomable (unthinkable) It creates a sense of psychological and physical depths of space, in which we find ourselves. Those words define the only tangible word in the first line, that is mine (mine). However, any tangibility, if about it at all possible to speak here, followed by addition annihilated: of souls (shower).
If we talk about the descriptions and definitions of hell, “COPY shower” -extremely effective, as though the word “people” here, Firstly, simply means “dead”, it also carries with it shades as the heathen, and Christian values. In this way, another world — this repository and source of supply. This warehouse dead kingdom shade brings together two metaphysical systems available to us, as a result, whether the pressure force, whether from lack of oxygen,, whether from high temperature, generating a next row silver ore.
This oxidation occurs not because of chemistry or alchemy, but as a product of cultural metabolism, most directly discernible in the language — and it is difficult to find the best evidence, than “silver”.
V
National Museum or the National Museum, but silver is, can say, It comes from Naples; from another cave, leading to the underworld, about ten miles west of the city. This cave, with hundreds of inputs, He served as housing Sibyl Kuma, which the Council asks Aeneas in Virgil, plotting a campaign in the kingdom of the dead to, to see his father, in the 6th book “Aeneid”. Sibyl Aeneas warns about the various difficulties, coupled with the enterprise, — chief among them is, to break off a branch with gold golden tree, who met him on the road. Then you need to give this branch of Persephone, Empress Aida — otherwise enter into her dark realm of impossible.
Clear, that the Golden Bough, as golden barrel, — metaphor of underground deposits of gold ore. Hence the complexity of the task — break off her, — extracting complexity entire gold wires of stone. Unconsciously (or knowingly) trying to avoid imitation of Virgil, Rilke changing the metal, and with it the color of the scene, apparently, trying to give the kingdom of Persephone a monochrome character. This change, of course, entails a change in the market value of its “ore”, ie shower, suggesting that their abundance, and at the same time and unobtrusive author's position. In short, Silver comes from the Sibyl, by Virgil. This is the essence of this metabolism. But we are only superficially touched his.

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