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I
The notion of the poet as an inveterate philanderer appeared recently. Like many ideas, rooted in the mass consciousness, it, apparently, It was a by-product of the industrial revolution, which, thanks to a quantum leap in human population and literacy, It spawned the phenomenon of mass consciousness. In other words, this image of the poet, it seems, longer obliged universal success of Byron “Don Juan”, than the romantic adventures of its author, perhaps impressive, but at that time unknown to the general public. In addition to all of Byron there is always a Wordsworth.
As a final period of social distinctiveness and its attendant philistinism, nineteenth century gave rise to most of the concepts and relationships, which occupy us and which we follow today. The poetry of this century for justice belongs to France; and, possibly, expansive gestures and exotic inclinations French Romantics and Symbolists promoted a skeptical attitude to the poets no less, than the ordinary representation of the French as embodied debauchery. generally,, behind this reproach poets hiding the instinctive desire of any social system — whether it is a democracy, autocracy, theocracy, ideocracy or bureaucracy — compromise or diminish the prestige of poetry, which, In addition to competing with the authority of the state, It puts a question mark on the individual, his achievements and emotional balance, on most of its significance. In this respect, the nineteenth century simply sided with the previous: when it comes to poetry, every bourgeois — Plato.
II
However, the attitude to the poet of antiquity in general was the rise and wise. This is due to polytheism, and to the fact, that the public had to rely on poets amusements. Except for mutual picks (common in the literary life of any era), neglect of the poets in antiquity — rarity. in front of, poets revered for individuals, close to the gods: in the public mind they rank somewhere between predictors and demigods. Little of, deities themselves were often their audience, as evidenced by the myth of Orpheus.
Nothing could be farther from Plato, than this myth, which is also clearly illustrates the representation of the ancient poet's sense of wholeness. Orpheus is not Don Juan. He was so shocked by the death of his wife Eurydice, that Olympians, unable to endure more than his groaning, allow him to go to hell, to bring it. the, that from this trip (which was followed by a similar poetic descent in Homer, Vergina and, of course, Dante) nothing comes, only shows the intensity of the feelings of the poet to his sweetheart, and, certainly, understanding all the subtleties of the ancient guilt.
III
This intensity, as well as the fate of Orpheus (he was torn to pieces by a crowd of angry maenads, whose naked charms neglected, once safeguarding the vow of chastity, given to them after the death of Eurydice), It indicates the monogamous nature of passion, at least this poet. Although, Unlike the later ages monotheists, old is not too highly of monogamy, It should be noted, that they do not fall into the opposite extreme, and in particular the virtue of fidelity saw his chief poet. Generally, in addition to the beloved, sorority poet of antiquity was limited only by his Muse.
They are partly the same as in the modern consciousness; but in antiquity, as Musa was hardly corporeal. Daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne (goddess of memory), she was deprived of tangibility; to death, in particular for the poet, she found herself the only voice: dictating to him a particular line. In other words, It was the voice of the language; but what the poet really listens — is the language: it dictates the language the following line. AND, possibly, he gender of the Greek word “glossa” (“tongue”) explains femininity Muse.
The same association is the feminine noun “tongue” in Latin, French, Italian, Spanish and German. In English, however, “tongue” neuter; in Russian — male. but, whatever his race, attachment to the language of the poet monogamous, for the poet, at least by virtue of profession, monolingualism. One could even argue, that all his loyalty goes to Muse, as evidenced by the, eg, Byron's version of Romanticism — but this would be true, Only if the poet's language is really determined his choice. In fact, the language — it is a reality, and knowledge, a brain relates to Musa, It would be valuable, Only if we could manage this part of our anatomy.
IV
Therefore no alternative to the beloved Muse, but its predecessor. In fact, as “older ladies” Muza, in virginity “tongue”, It plays a crucial role in the development of feelings of the poet. It is responsible not only for his emotional device, but often at the choice of their object of passion and the way of his pursuit. It is doing so fanatically purposeful, turning his love into the equivalent of its own monologue. the, that in the realm of the senses corresponds to the tenacity and obsession, — in fact, Muse dictates, whose choice is always the aesthetic origins and dismisses alternatives. Love, so to speak, always experience monotheistic.
Christianity, of course, It was not slow to take advantage of. However, that really connects with the pagan religious mystic sensualist, Gerard Manley Hopkins Propertius, — an emotional absolutism. The intensity of the emotional absolutism is, that at times it peremahival through, that is near, and often through their own object. Usually, quarrelsome, idiosyncratic, Foaming author insistent voice of the Muse takes it beyond how imperfect, and perfect union, beyond a complete disaster and paroxysms of happiness — the price of the real reality, reciprocates the girl or without it. In other words, the pitch increases for its own sake, like tongue pushes the poet, especially romantic poet, there, where language came, there, which in the beginning was the word or audible sound. Hence a lot of broken marriages, hence many long poems, hence the tendency to metaphysical poetry, For every word wants to go back, where it came, at least an echo, which is the parent of rhyme. Hence, too, and the reputation of the poet's Progress.
V
Among other factors, the spiritual impoverishment of the public, vuayoristsky biography genre ranks first. the, that of ruined virgins more, than immortal lyric poems, apparently, It does not bother anyone. The last bastion of realism — biography — It is based on the addictive premise, that art can be attributed to life. Following this logic,, “The Song of Roland” It should be written Bluebeard (Well, at least, Gilles de Retsem), but “Faust” — Frederick of Prussia or, if you prefer, Humboldt.
The poet with his less eloquent fellow citizens have in common is, that his life — hostage of his craft, and not vice versa. And not only because, that he is paid for his words (rarely and scantily): the fact, he also pays for them (often appallingly). It is the latter gives rise to confusion and breeds biography, because indifference — not the only form of payment: ostracism, conclusion, exile, oblivion, self-abhorrence, doubts, remorse, madness, a number of bad habits — also running coin. All this, naturally, easy to portray. However, this is not the reason of writing, and its consequence. Roughly speaking, to sell the thing and avoid clichés, our poet constantly having to climb back, where no one before him did not happen, — intellectually, psychologically and lexical. Once there, he finds, that the next really no one, Besides, possibly, word or the initial value of an initial audible sound.
There is a price. The longer he is doing — maxim hitherto not spoken, the stranger becomes its behavior. Revelations and insights, he received while, can lead to either an increase pride, or — more likely — humility before the power, he feels these insights and revelations. He can still vtemyashit, what, having become the mouthpiece of the language, older and more sustainable, than anything, he adopts his wisdom, and along with the knowledge of the future. No matter how he is sociable or shy by nature, things like knock him even further from the social context, which is desperately trying to get him back, leading to a common denominator genital.
WE
This is due to the assumed femininity Muse (even when the poet is a woman). Although the true reason is, that art is more durable life, — the unpleasant realization that underlies the desire to subordinate first lumpen last. The final is always wrongly assumed constant for the infinite and has plans against him. In that, certainly, has its own wine unchanging, because sometimes it can not act as a final. Even staunch and misogynistic misanthropes among poets produce a lot of love lyrics, at least a sign of loyalty to the shop or as an exercise. It's enough, to give a reason for research, interpretations, psychoanalytic interpretations and other. The general scheme is as follows: female nature Muse assumes manhood poet. Manhood poet suggests female nature lover. Conclusion: Beloved Muse is or may be called so. another conclusion: the poem has a sublimation of erotic intentions of the author and should be treated as such. Simply.
the, Homer, probably, was pretty decrepit time to composing “Odissei” and that Goethe, proceed to the second portion “Faust”, such was undoubtedly, — irrelevant. How do we deal with the epic poet? And how can a person be so sublimated rake? For this label, apparently, I clung to us; possibly, it would be appropriate to assume, that as an art, and erotic activities are an expression of creative energy, that both — sublimation. As for the Muse, the language of an angel, this “older ladies”, would be better, if the biographers and the audience left her alone, and if they can not, they should at least be remembered, that she is older, than any lover or mother, and her voice inexorably language. It will dictate whether the poet, Where, how and when he lives, and if not this poet, the next, partly because, that live and write — different classes (why, and there are two different verbs) and to equalize their absurd, than to divide, For literature has a rich past, than any individual, whatever its pedigree.
VII
“For a man, the image of a girl — undoubtedly, his soul image”, — I wrote one Russian poet, and that is what is behind the exploits of Theseus or St.. George, search for Orpheus and Dante. Explicit troublesome of these companies shows another motive, rather than pure lust. In other words, love — case metafizicheskoe, whose purpose is the establishment of a, or the liberation of the soul, separation of its existence from the chaff. What it has always been the essence of lyrical poetry.
Shortly speaking, Virgo — cast the soul of the poet, and it aims at it just for lack of an alternative, Besides, possibly, he, in the mirror. In an era, which we call modern, as a poet, and his audience accustomed to short episodes. However, even in this century were enough exceptions, whose validity in relation to the subject of competing with the attitude of Petrarch. One can cite as an example Ahmatova, Montale, can recall “gloomy pastoral” Robert Frost and Thomas Hardy. This search for the soul in the form of lyric poetry. Hence the uniqueness of the destination and the constancy of manners, or style. Often poetic activity, if the poet lived long enough, It looks genre variations on the same theme, that helps us tell the dancer from the dance — in this case, a love poem of love, as such. If a poet dying young, dancer and dance merge. This leads to terrible terminological confusion and bad press for participants, not to mention their occupation.
VIII
While the love poem is most often applied art (that is written for, to get a girl), It leads the author to the emotional and, very likely, linguistic extremes. As a result, he comes out of this poem, knowing yourself — its psychological and stylistic parameters — it is better, than before, which explains the popularity of this genre among practicing it. Sometimes the author zapoluchaet and Woman.
Regardless of practical application, love lyrics a lot, simply because, that it is the product of sentimental necessity. Caused by specific adresatkoy, the need for this can adresatkoy to limit or it may develop autonomous dynamics and volume, due to the centrifugal nature of language. The consequence may be either loop love poems, addressed to one person, a number of poems, developable, so to speak, in different directions. The choice here — if you can talk about the choice there, which acts need, — not so much a moral or spiritual, many stylistic and depends on the length of the poet's life. And it is here that a stylistic choice — if you can talk about the choice there, and the case where there are a period of time, — It smacks of spiritual consequences. For ultimately love lyrics, of necessity, narcissistic activity. This expression, whatever it may be shaped, author's own feelings, and, as such, it corresponds to the self-portrait, rather than the portrait of one of his or her beloved world. If not outline, canvases, thumbnails or pictures, reading a poem, we often do not know, about what — or, more precisely, about someone — question. Even looking at them, we do not learn much about the images on them beauties, except, that they do not like their singers, and that, in our opinion, not all of them beautiful. But the picture is rarely followed by the words, and vice versa. In addition to the images of the covers of magazines and shower should be approached with different yardsticks. for Dante, at least, beauty depended on the ability of the viewer to discern the human face in an oval only seven letters, form words Homo Dei.
IX
The fact, that their real appearance was not important, and it is not supposed to display. What was supposed to display, so is the spiritual fulfillment, What is there is definitive proof of the existence of the poet. Picture — purchase for him, possibly, for her; the reader is almost loss, For subtracted from the imagination. for a poem — peace deal, for the reader as well, for the author. “Her” portrait — Therefore, the state, transferred his tone and his words: The reader would be a fool, if satisfied with less. AT “her” important, not its particular, and its versatility. Do not try to find her a picture and place it next to him: nothing doing. simply put, love poem — the soul, set in motion. If it is good, it can touch your soul and.
It is this difference opens the way for metaphysics. Poem of love can be good or bad, but it offers a way out to the author of its own borders or — if a poem or a novel exceptionally good long -samootritsanie. What is the share of the Muse, while it is still going on? Not so much, for love poems dictated by existential necessity, and the need not to care much about the quality of the utterance. Usually, love poems are written quickly and do not undergo big changes. But as soon as the metaphysical dimension is reached or, at least, when it achieved self-negation, then you can really tell the dancer from the dance: love poems of love and, in this way, from a poem about love or dictated by love.
X
A poem about love does not insist on the reality of its author and rarely uses the pronoun “I”. What about this, than a poet is not, o tom, what he perceives as different from themselves. If this mirror, this is a small mirror, and it is located too far. To find yourself in it, humility is required in addition to the loop, whose resolution can not distinguish the observation of fascination. The theme of the poem of love can be almost anything: features a girl, ribbon in her hair, landscape outside her home, running clouds, starry sky, some inanimate object. It may not have anything to do with the girl; it can describe a conversation between two or more mythical characters, wilted bouquet, Snow on railway platform. However, readers will know, they read a poem, instilled love, due to the intensity of attention, paid to one or another part of the universe. For love is a relation to reality — usually someone end to something infinite. Hence the intensity, caused by the sense of time of possession. Hence dictated by the intensity of this need for verbal expression. Hence less transient voice search, than their own. And then there is the Muse, this “older lady”, meticulous as regards the possession of.
XI
Famous exclamation Pasternak “The all-powerful god of parts, the all-powerful god of love!” insightful precisely because of the insignificance of the sum of these parts. undoubtedly, It could be to establish a relationship between the small details and intensity of attention, give it, as well as between the latter and the spiritual maturity of the poet, because the poem — any poem, regardless of subject matter, — in itself is an act of love not so much the author to his subject, as part of the language to reality. If it is painted in the elegiac tone of pity, then because, it was love most to least, permanent to temporary. it, certainly, It does not affect the behavior of the romantic poet, because he, being physical, more likely to identify themselves with a temporary, than with perpetual. All his knowledge, possibly, in, what, when it comes to love, art — a more adequate form of expression, than any other; on paper, you can achieve a greater degree of lyricism, than sleeping sheets.
If it were otherwise, we would have much less of art. Martyrdom and holiness prove not so much the content of the faith, as the human capacity to believe, and love poetry expresses the ability of art to go beyond reality — or completely avoid it. maybe, the true measure of this kind of poetry is its inapplicability to the real world, inability to translate her feelings into action due to the absence of the physical equivalent of an abstract insight. The physical world should be offended by this kind of criterion. But he has a photo — it is not quite art, but is able to embody an abstract in flight or at least in motion.
XII
And some time ago in the small garrison town in northern Italy, I was faced with an attempt to do just that: display the reality of poetry with the camera. It was a small photo exhibition: the photographs were sealed beloved great poets of the twentieth century — wives, favorite, mistress, adolescents, men, — a total of thirty. Gallery began with Baudelaire and Pessoa ended and Montale; next to each love was attached to the famous poem in the original and in translation. happy thought, I thought, loitering among glazed stand with black and white photographs of a fullface, in profile and three-quarters — and that the singers, which determined their fate and the fate of their languages. A flock of rare birds, caught in tenota gallery, — they really can be regarded as the starting point of Arts, they, where it is to part with reality, or -better — as a means of transferring reality to a higher level lyrical, that is, in a poem. (Ultimately to fading and, usually, persons dying art is another variant of the future.)
We can not say, that the image of women there (and several men) lacked psychological, external or erotic qualities, necessary for the happiness of the poet: in front of, they seemed, albeit in different ways, gifted by nature. Some were married, other lovers and mistresses, others lingered in the mind of the poet, although their appearance in his home, possibly, it was passing. Of course, given the prodigious diversity, that nature can enter the human Oval, the choice seems arbitrary lovers. conventional factors — genetic, history, social, aesthetic — narrow range, not only for the poet. However, certain prerequisites in the selection of the poet — presence in the oval some dysfunction, ambivalence and open to interpretation, reflecting, so to speak, in the flesh, the essence of his works.
the, that typically seek to identify such epithets, as “mysterious”, “dreamy” or “otherworldliness”, and that explains the predominance in this gallery outwardly optional blondes over brunettes excessive uniqueness. Anyway, this feature, however vague it may be, really applies to migratory birds, it is caught in the net. Frozen front of the camera or caught unawares, these individuals were similar in one: they seemed absent or psychological focus was somewhat blurred. Of course, the next moment, these people will be energized, collected, relaxed, voluptuous, hardhearted or suffering from infidelity singer, someone will give birth to children, someone run away with another -koroche, they will be more specific. However, at the time of exposure is not difficult personality, uncertain, they, as a poem in the work, do not yet have the following line or, Often, Topics. And also, as a poem, they have not resulted in: left unfinished. In short, they were drafts.
That variability animates the face for the poet, that so clearly expressed in these famous lines Yates:
Many loved your moments of joyful grace
And your beauty — love true or fake,
But one loved your wandering soul
And sorrow, runs on your face changeable.
the, that the reader is able to commiserate these lines of, proves, that variability implies it the same, as a poet. more precisely, its degree of empathy in this case is the degree of its remoteness from that same variability, the extent of his chained to a particular: to hell, or circumstances, or to both. As for the poet, he discerns in this changing much more oval, than seven letters Homo Dei; he discerns in it the whole alphabet in all its combinations, ie language. Like this, possibly, Muse is really gets feminine traits, so it becomes a photo. In quatrain Yeats — instant recognition of one form of life to another: tremolo vocal cords poet in terms of death of his beloved, or uncertainty in uncertainty. For vibrating voices all unsettled and anxious is the echo, sometimes rises to the alter ego, or, as required by the gender, Another до am.
XIII
Despite the imperatives of grammatical gender, let us not forget, altra ego that is not Muse. Whatever the depth of solipsism nor opened his union bodies, no poet will never vote for its echo, interior of the external. A prerequisite for love is the autonomy of its object, Remote preferably not more than an arm's length. The same applies to the echo, which defines the space, covered by voice. Depicted in the images of women and especially men themselves were not the Muses, but they were of good doubles, takes on this side of reality, and speaking with “senior ladies” the same language. They were (and later became) wives of other people: actress and dancer, teacher, divorced, nurses; they have social status and, in this way, You could be determined, whereas the main feature of the Muse — let me repeat — in, that it is indefinable. They were nervous and serene, lascivious and strict, religious and cynical, ladies and sluts, exquisitely educated and barely literate. Some of them are not interested in poetry and willingly entered into the arms of any ordinary boor, rather than pыlkogo obozhatelya. In addition, they lived in different countries, at about the same time, They spoke different languages ​​and did not know about each other. In short, they have no links, Besides, that their words and actions at some point run and set in motion the mechanism of language, and he rolled, leaving a paper “the best words in the best order”. They were not the Muses, because they are forced to Muse, this “an older lady”, speak.
Caught in a web gallery, I think, These birds of paradise were poets, at least, finally identified, if not banded. Like his singers, many of them have already died, and with them died of their shameful secrets, minute celebration, impressive wardrobes, protracted illnesses and eccentric habits. There was a song, owes its appearance as a singer's ability to tweet, and the ability of birds to flit, survivor, but, and those and others — it will survive its readers, that, at least at the time of reading, participate in the ongoing life of the song.
XIV
This is the main difference between the lover and muse: the latter does not die. The same applies to museums and poet: when he dies, she finds another herald in the next generation. otherwise talk, she always tolchetsya about language and, apparently, does not mind, when it is taken for a simple girl. I laugh at this kind of mistake, she is trying to fix it, dictating his charge that page “rayah”, the poems of Thomas Hardy (1912–1913 gg.); in short, lines, where the voice of human passion gives way to voice the need for linguistic — but, apparently, vainly. So let's leave it with a flute and a wreath of wildflowers. So, at least, her, possibly, be avoided biographer.
1990

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