Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodsky (24 May 1940 of the year, Leningrad, THE USSR - 28 January 1996 of the year, New York, USA; buried in Venice) - Russian and American poet, essyeist, playwright, translator, Nobel Prize for Literature 1987 of the year, US Poet Laureate in 1991-1992. He wrote poems mainly in Russian, essays - in English.
Childhood and youth
Joseph Brodsky was born 24 May 1940 in Leningrad. Father, Soviet Navy captain Alexander Brodsky (1903—1984), It was military photojournalist, after the war, he went to work in the darkroom Naval Museum. AT 1950 was discharged, then he worked as a photographer and journalist in several newspapers of Leningrad. Mother, Maria Moiseevna Wolpert (1905—1983), He worked as an accountant. His mother's sister - actress of the Theater and Drama Theater. AT. F. Komissarzhevskaya Dora Moiseevna Wolpert.
Early childhood Josef had in the years of war, blockade, post-war poverty and passed without a father. AT 1942 year after the blockade winter Moiseevna Mary and Joseph went to the evacuation of Cherepovets, We returned to Leningrad in 1944 year. AT 1947 , Joseph went to school number 203 Kirochnaya on street, 8. AT 1950 he moved to the school number 196 on Moss Street, at 1953 I have gone to the 7th class at school number 181 to the Salt Lane and left the following year for the second year. AT 1954 was filed in the Second Baltic College (naval Academy), but it was not accepted. I went to school number 276 in the Bypass canal house number 154, where he continued his studies in the 7th grade.
AT 1955 the family gets a "half room" in the House Muruzi.
Brodsky's aesthetic views were formed in Leningrad, 1940-1950-ies. Neoklassicheskaya architecture, badly damaged during the bombing, endless vistas of Leningrad suburbs, water, the multiplicity of reflections, - motives, associated with these impressions of his childhood and adolescence, always present in his work.
AT 1955 year, incomplete in sixteen, finished seventh grade and the eighth, Brodsky left school and became an apprentice miller at the plant "Arsenal". This decision was due to both the problems at school, and with the desire to support the family financially Brodsky. Unsuccessfully tried to enter the School of Submariners. AT 16 s hit on the idea of becoming a doctor, month worked as an assistant dissector in the morgue at the regional hospital, dissected corpses, but in the end he gave up a medical career. Besides, for five years after leaving school Brodsky worked stoker in the boiler room, sailor at the lighthouse.
WITH 1957 We have been working in geological expeditions NIIGA: at 1957 and 1958 years - in the White Sea, at 1959 and 1961 years - in Eastern Siberia and in the North of Yakutia, on the Anabar Shield. Summer 1961 year in the Yakut village Nelkan the period of enforced idleness (there was no deer to further hike) him there was a nervous breakdown, and he was allowed to return to Leningrad.
At the same time he was very much, but randomly read - especially poetry, philosophical and religious literature, I began to study English and Polish.
AT 1959 was met with Yevgeny Rein, Anatoly Naiman, Vladimir Uflyand, Bulatom Okudzhavoy, Sergei Dovlatov.
14 February 1960 It held its first major public appearance at the "tournament of poets" in the Leningrad Palace of Culture named after Gorky with A. WITH. Kouchner, D. I. Gorbovsky, AT. BUT. Sosnora. Reading the poem "The Jewish Cemetery" caused a scandal.
During a trip to Samarkand in December 1960 year Brodsky and his friend, former pilot Oleg Shakhmatov, considered plan of the aircraft seizure, to fly abroad. But this they did not dare. Shakhmatov later was arrested for illegal possession of weapons and said the KGB of the plan, and on the other his friend, Alexander Uman, and his "anti-Soviet" manuscript, which chess and Brodsky tried to pass accidentally met up American. 29 January 1961 year Brodsky was detained by KGB, but two days later he was released.
In August 1961 at Komarov Evgeny Rein introduces Brodsky Anna Akhmatova. AT 1962 , during a trip to Pskov, he met with H. I. Mandelstam, and 1963 year Akhmatova - Lydia Chukovskaia. After the death of Akhmatova 1966 year, with a light hand D. Bobyshev four young poets, among them, and Brodsky, in the memoir literature is often referred to as "Akhmatova's Orphans".
AT 1962 twenty-two year Brodsky met a young artist Marina (Marianna) Basmanova, artist P daughter. AND. Basmanova. Since that time, Marianne Basmanova, hidden under the initials "M. B. ", devoted to many works of the poet. "Poems, dedicated to the "M. B. ", occupy a central place in the lyric Brodsky, not because, they are the best - there are some masterpieces and there are poems bushing, - but because, These poems and invested in their spiritual experience were the crucible, which smelt of his poetic personality ". The first verses of this dedication - "I hugged the shoulders and looked ...", "Neither anguish, neither love, no sorrow ... ", "Mystery of the angel," dated 1962 year. A collection of poems and. Brodsky "New Stanzas to Augusta" (USA, Michigan: Ardis, 1983) composed of his poems 1962-1982 years, dedicated "M. B. ". The last poem with dedication "M. B. "dated 1989 year.
8 October 1967 Marianna Basmanova year and a son of Joseph Brodsky, Andrei Osipovich Basmanov. In 1972-1995 gg. M. P. And Basmanova and. BUT. Brodsky consisted in correspondence.
early poems, impact
In his own words, Brodsky began writing poetry at the age of eighteen, however there are a few poems, dated 1956-1957 years. One of the key thrusts became acquainted with the poetry of Boris Slutsky. "Piligrimy", "The monument to Pushkin", "Christmas Song" - the most famous of the early poems of Brodsky. For many of them characterized by a pronounced musicality. So, In the poem "From the outskirts to the center," and "I - the son of the suburbs, son suburbs, son suburbs ... "you can see the rhythmic elements of jazz improvisation. Tsvetaeva and Baratynsky, a few years later - Mandelstam, had, in the words of Brodsky, determining influence on him.
Of his contemporaries it affected Yevgeny Rein, Vladimir Uflyand, Stanislav Krasovytskyy.
Later Brodsky called the greatest poet Auden and Tsvetaeva, they were followed by Cavafy and Frost, bringing up a personal canon of the poet Rilke, Parsnip, Mandelstam and Akhmatova.
First published poem Brodsky was "The Ballad of the small tow", published in abbreviated form in the children's magazine "bonfire" (№ 11, 1962).
persecution, court and link
29 November 1963 in the newspaper "Evening Leningrad" published an article "okololiteraturnye drone", I signed. Lerner, M. Medvedev and A. Ionin. The authors branded Brodsky for "parasitic way of life". From verse citations, the authors attributed Brodsky, two were taken from poems Bobyshev, and the third, from the poem Brodsky "Procession", represented closure six rows, from which the first cut halves. The poem "Love travel home friends ..." has been warped by the authors feuilleton follows: the first line of "Love travel home friends" and the latest "regret passing someone else's home" were combined into one "I love someone else's home".
It was obvious, that the article is a signal to the persecution and, possibly, Brodsky arrested. However, According to Brodsky, more, than slander, subsequent arrest, trial and conviction, his mind occupied while the gap with Marianna Basmanova. The period witnessed a suicide attempt.
8 January 1964 , the "Evening Leningrad" published a collection of letters from readers demanding to punish "parasite Brodsky". 13 January 1964 year Brodsky was arrested on charges of parasitism. 14 in February he suffered a first heart attack in the chamber. Since that time, Brodsky constantly suffered angina, which always reminded him of a possible imminent death (that at the same time did not prevent him to be a heavy smoker). Largely out of here, "Hello, my aging!" at 33 year and "What can I say about life? What was long "in 40 - with his diagnosis of the poet really I was not sure, that will live up to the day of birth.
18 February 1964 the court decided to send Brodsky to the compulsory forensic psychiatric examination. On "Pryazhke» (Psychiatric Hospital № 2 in Leningrad) Brodsky spent three weeks and subsequently noted: "... it was the worst time of my life". According to the memoirs of Brodsky, in a psychiatric hospital was used to it, "ukrutku": "Late at night waking, immersed in an ice bath, wrapped in a wet sheet and placed next to the battery. From batteries heat the sheet dries and crashed into the body ". examination conclusion was: "In the presence of psychopathic traits, but able to work. Therefore, it can be applied administrative order measures ". After that, the second court hearing.
Two meetings of the trial of Brodsky (the judge Dzerzhinsky Court Savelyev E. BUT.) Frida was zakonspektirovat Vigdorova and widely disseminated in samizdat.
Brodsky's lawyer said in his speech,: "None of the witnesses for the prosecution did not know Brodsky, poems have not read; prosecution witnesses to testify on the basis of some unknown and untested by the received documents and express their opinions, saying the indictment ".
13 Martha 1964 during the second session of the trial, Brodsky was sentenced to the maximum possible under the decree of "parasitism" punishment - five years of forced labor in a remote area. He was exiled (convoyed under escort together with criminal prisoners) Konosha in the area of the Arkhangelsk region and settled in the village Norinskaya. In an interview with Volkov Brodsky called this the happiest time in his life. In exile, Brodsky studied English poetry, including creativity WH Auden.
Along with the extensive poetry publications in emigrant publications ("Air Way", "New Russian Word", "Sowing", "Facets" et al.), in August and September 1965 Brodsky, the two poems were published in Konosha "call" the local newspaper.
The trial of the poet was one of the factors, give rise to the human rights movement in the USSR and to the increased attention overseas to the situation of human rights in the USSR. Court record, Frida made Vigdorova, It was published in influential international journals: «New Leader», «Encounter», "Figaro Literary", čitalasʹ by BBC. With the active participation of Akhmatova waged a public campaign in defense of Brodsky. The central figures in it were Frida Vigdorova and Lydia Chukovskaia. Over one and a half years, they tirelessly wrote letters in defense of Brodsky in all Party and the courts and to bring to the protection of people Brodsky, influence in the Soviet system. Letters in defense of Brodsky were signed D. D. Shostakovich, WITH. I. Marshak, TO. AND. Čukovskim, TO. D. Paustovskim, BUT. T. Twardowski, YU. P. Germany and other. After a year and a half, in September 1965 , under pressure from the Soviet and world public (in particular, after referring to the Soviet government of Jean-Paul Sartre and a number of other foreign writers) reference period was reduced to the actually served, Brodsky returned to Leningrad. According to I. Gordini: "Bustle luminaries of Soviet culture no effect on the power does not have. Decisive was a warning of "friend of the USSR" by Jean-Paul Sartre, that at the European Forum of Writers, the Soviet delegation because of "Brodsky case" may be in a difficult situation ".
In October 1965 Brodsky year on the recommendation of Korney Chukovsky and Boris Vakhtina was admitted to a small group of translators at the Leningrad branch of the Writers' Union, which will continue to avoid further accusations of parasitism.
Brodsky, opposed forced on him - especially the Western media - the image of a fighter with the Soviet authorities. BUT. Volgin wrote, Brodsky "did not like to talk in an interview about the hardships, ported them in Soviet asylums and prisons, aggressively moving away from the image of a "self-made man" image of the "victims of the regime", ". In particular, he claimed: "I was fortunate in every respect. Others got it much more, had a much harder, than me ". And even: "... I think something, I do all this deserved ".
The last years at home
Brodsky was arrested and exiled 23-year-old boys, and returned 25 years of the established poet. Stay at home he was given less 7 years old. There was a maturity, elapsed time of belonging to a particular circle. In March 1966 Anna Akhmatova, the dead. Even earlier I began to disintegrate around her "magic chorus of" young poets. Brodsky's position in the official Soviet culture in those years can be compared with the position of Akhmatova in 1920-1930, or in the period of Mandelstam, prior to his first arrest.
In the end 1965 Brodsky years passed in the Leningrad branch of the publishing house "Soviet writer" the manuscript of his book "The Winter mail (poems 1962-1965)». One year later, after months of ordeal and despite numerous positive internal review, the manuscript was returned to the publisher. "Book of Fate decides not publishing. At some point, the regional committee and the KGB decided in principle to erase this idea ".
In 1966-1967, the Soviet press appeared 4 poet poem (not counting the publications in children's magazines), after a period of public muteness. From the reader's point of view, the only area of poetic activity, available Brodsky, were translated. "This poet in the Soviet Union does not exist" - said in 1968 by the Soviet Embassy in London in response to Brodsky sent an invitation to participate in an international poetry festival Poetry International.
Meanwhile, it's been years, filled with intense poetic work, which resulted in the poems, included in the future in a book published in the US: "Stop in the Desert", "The end of a great era" and "New Stanzas to Augusta". In the years 1965-1968 was working on a poem "Gorbunov and Gorchakov" - the product of, which Brodsky himself attached great importance. In addition to the occasional public speaking and reading in the apartments of friends Brodsky's poetry is widely dispersed in samizdat (with numerous inevitable distortions - copiers did not exist in those days). maybe, a wider audience thanks to the songs they got, written by Alexander and Evgeny Mirzayanov Klyachkin.
Outwardly life Brodsky in the years evolved relatively quiet, but the KGB did not leave the care of his "old customer". This was facilitated by the, that "It is therefore extremely popular with foreign journalists, scientists-Slavists, coming to Russia. He interviewed, he was invited to Western universities (naturally, that permission to leave the authorities do not give) and so on. P.". In addition to the transfers - the work on which he took very seriously - Brodsky moonlighting other available for writer, excluded from the "system", ways: freelance reviewer in "Aurora" magazine, random "schlock" at the studios, even filmed (in the role of Secretary of Party Committee) in the movie "The train to a distant August".
Beyond the borders of the USSR Brodsky's poems continue to appear in Russian, and translations, primarily in English, Polish and Italian. AT 1967 in England came out unauthorized collection of translations «Joseph Brodsky. Elegy to John Donne and Other Poems / Tr. by Nicholas Bethell». AT 1970 in New York goes, "Stop in the Desert" - the first book Brodsky, compiled under its control. Poems and preparatory material for the book smuggled out of Russia or, as is the case with the poem "Gorbunov and Gorchakov", They were sent to the West by diplomatic mail.
AT 1971 , Brodsky was elected a member of the Bavarian Academy of Fine Arts.
10 May 1972 year Brodsky called the Visa Office and put before a choice: immediate emigration, or "hot denochki", What is a metaphor in the mouth of the KGB interrogation could mean, prisons and mental hospitals. By the time he had already twice - in winter 1964 year - he had to lie on the "examination" in psychiatric hospitals, what happened, According to him, terrible prison and exile. Brodsky takes a decision to leave. Learning of this, Vladimir Maramzin invited him to collect all that is written for the preparation of the collected works of samizdat. The result was the first and to 1992 , the only collection of works by Joseph Brodsky - of course, typewritten. Before leaving, he had to authorize all 4 volumes. By choosing to emigrate, Brodsky was trying to delay the day of departure, but authorities want to get rid of unwanted poet as soon as possible. 4 June 1972 years deprived of his Soviet citizenship Brodsky took off from Leningrad on the prescribed Jewish emigration route: Vienna.
Two days after his arrival in Vienna, Brodsky sent acquainted to living in Austria have. Oden. "He reacted to me with extraordinary participation, immediately he took under his wing ... took me to introduce literary circles ". Together with Auden, Brodsky in late June, is taking part in the International Festival of Poetry (Poetry International) in London. With creativity Auden, Brodsky had known since his exile and called him, along with Akhmatova, poet, We have had a decisive "ethical influence". At the same time in London, Brodsky met with Isaiah Berlin, Stephen Spender, Şejmasom Xini Roʙertom Louellom.
In July 1972 g. Brodsky moved to the United States and takes the post "a guest of the poet" (poet-in-residence) the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, which teaches, intermittently, to 1980 g. From that moment the USSR ended in incomplete 8 high school life leads Brodsky university teacher, taking over the next 24 years professorships in a total of six American and British universities, including in Columbia and in New York. He taught the history of Russian literature, Russian and world poetry, verse theory, She gave lectures and poetry readings on the international literary festivals and forums, libraries and universities in the US, In Canada, England, Ireland, France, Sweden, Italy.
Over the years, his health steadily deteriorated, Brodsky, whose first heart attack came in the days of prison 1964 of the year, suffered 4 heart attack 1976, 1985 and 1994 years.
Brodsky's parents filed a statement twelve times for permission to see his son, the same request to the government of the USSR addressed lawmakers and prominent US culture, but even after, Brodsky in 1978 year underwent open-heart surgery and was in need of care, his parents had been denied an exit visa. Son they are no longer seen. Brodsky's mother died in 1983 year, just over a year later, his father died. Both times, Brodsky was not allowed to come to the funeral. Parents devoted book "Part of Speech" (1977), poem "The thought of you removed, both demoted servants ... " (1985), "In memory of his father: Australia » (1989), essay "Room and a Half" (1985).
AT 1977 , Brodsky takes US citizenship, at 1980 finally moved from Ann Arbor to New York, further divides his time between New York and South Hadley, campus in Massachusetts, where to 1982 until the end of his life he taught at the spring semester in the consortium "five colleges". AT 1990 Brodsky was married Mary Sotstsani, Italian aristocrat, Russian on the maternal side. AT 1993 year they had a daughter, Anna.
Poet and essayist
Brodsky's poems and their translations published outside the USSR 1964 of the year, when his name became widely known with the publication of the records of the court poet. Since his arrival in the West, his poetry regularly appears on the pages of publications of Russian emigration. Perhaps the most, than in the Russian-language press, published translations of Brodsky's poems, primarily in the US and UK magazines, and 1973 year appears and the book of selected translations. But in the new Russian poetry books are published only in the 1977 g. - is "The End of Belle Époque", including poems 1964-1971 years, and "Part of Speech", which included works, written in 1972-1976. The reason for this division were not external events (emigration) - interpretation of exile as a momentous factor was foreign Brodsky - and then, that he believed in 1971/1972 years qualitative changes in his work. At this turn of the written "Still Life", "Odnomu tyrant", "Odysseus Telemachus", "Song of Innocence, it is the experience of ", "Letters to a Roman Friend", "Funeral Bobo". In the poem "1972", launched in Russia and completed abroad, Brodsky, gives the following formula: "Everything, that I did, I did not for / fame in the era of cinema and radio, / but for the sake of his native speech, literature ... ". The name of the collection - "Part of Speech" - is explained by the same promise, lapidary formulated in his Nobel lecture: "Who-who, and the poet always knows <…> that is not the language of his instrument, and he - means of language ".
In the 1970s and 1980s, Brodsky, usually, not included in his new book of poems, included in earlier collections. Exception is the 1983 , the book "New Stanzas to Augusta", composed of poems, converts to M. B. - Marina Basmanova. Years later Brodsky said about this book: "This is the main thing in my life <…> It seems to me, with the result that "New Stanzas to Augusta" can be read, as a separate product. Unfortunately, I wrote "The Divine Comedy". AND, apparently, I never write it. And then it turned into a kind of poetic book with its own story ... ". "New Stanzas to Augusta" is the only book of poetry Brodsky in Russian, compiled by the author.
WITH 1972 year Brodsky actively addresses the essays, which does not leave until the end of life. In the US, published three books of his essays: «Less Than One» (less than one) at 1986 year, «Watermark» (Quay incurable) at 1992 и «On Grief and Reason» (About grief and mind) at 1995. Most of the essays, included in these collections, It was written in English. his prose, at least no less than its poetry, Brodsky made a name well known to the world outside the USSR. American National Council of Literary Critics collection «Less Than One» was recognized as the best US literary criticism for a book 1986 year. By this time, Brodsky was the owner of a half-dozen titles a member of the literary academies and an honorary doctor of different universities, He was the winner of the MacArthur Fellowship 1981 of the year.
The next big book of poems - "Urania" - was published in 1987 year. In the same year, Brodsky won the Nobel Prize for Literature, which was awarded to him for "a comprehensive work, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity " («for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity»).
In the 1990s, are the four books of new poetry Brodsky: "Notes fern", "Cappadocia", "In the vicinity of Atlantis" and published in Ardis after the poet's death and became the final collection "Landscape with a flood".
Brodsky's poetry undoubted success both among critics and literary, and among readers, It has, probably, more exceptions, than would be required to confirm the rules. Reduced emotional, musical and metaphysical complexity; - especially "late" Brodsky - repel and some artists. In particular, It can be called a work of Alexander Solzhenitsyn, whose creative work of the poet reproaches are largely ideological character. Almost literally, he echoes the critic from the other camp: Dmitry Bykov in his essay on Brodsky after introductions: "I'm not going to rehash here rashozhie platitudes about, Brodsky "cold", "Odnoobrazen", "Inhumane" ... ", - continue doing just that: "Remarkably little live text ... Hardly today's reader with no effort finish reading" Procession "In the vast body of Brodsky's works, "Farewell, Mademoiselle Veronica "or" Letter in a Bottle "- although, undoubtedly, he can not appreciate the "Part of Speech", "Twenty Sonnets to Mary Queen of Scots" or "Talk to Celestial": best texts still living, not yet petrified Brodsky, living soul cry, sentient its ossification, glaciation, umiranie ».
Playwright, translator, litterateur
Brodsky Peru belong to two published plays: «Marble», 1982 and "Democracy", 1990—1992. He also has translated plays by English playwright Tom Stoppard's "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead" and Irishman Brendan Behan "Speaking of the rope". Brodsky left a significant legacy as a global translator of poetry into Russian. Translated from their authors can be called, in particular, John Donne, Andrew Marvell, Richard Wilbur, Euripides (of "Medea"), Constantine P. Cavafy, Constants Ildefonso Galchinsky, Czeslaw Milosz, Tomas Venclova. Much less Brodsky appealed to the translations into English. First of all, it, of course, Publisher's, as well as translations of Mandelstam, Tsvetaeva, Wislawa Szymborska, and a number of other.
Susan Sontag, American writer and close friend of Brodsky, He speaks: “I'm sure, that he regarded his exile as a great opportunity to become not only the Russian, but worldwide poet ... I remember, Brodsky said, laughing, somewhere in 1976-1977: "Sometimes I feel so strange to think, I can write all, I want, and it will be printed ". Brodsky takes this opportunity to fully. Beginning with 1972 , he plunges headlong into the social and literary life. In addition to the above three books of essays, the number of articles written by him, introductions, letters to the editor, reviews of various collections of crosses over a hundred, not counting the numerous oral presentations in the evenings works of Russian and English-language poets, participate in discussions and forums, magazine interview. The authors list, on whose work he gives a review, names and. Lisnyanskaya, E. Reina, BUT. Kouchner, D. Novikov, B. Akhmadulinoi, L. Losev, YU. Kublanovskaya, YU. Aleshkovskii, is. Uflyanda, AT. Gandelsman, BUT. Naimana, R. Derieva, R. Uilbera, BUT. Milos, M. Strand, D. Walcott and other. Major newspapers around the world published his appeal in defense of persecuted writers: WITH. development, n. Horbanevskoy, AT. Maramzin, T. Venclova, TO. Azadovsky. "Besides, he tried to help such a large number of people ", - including, letters of recommendation - "that in recent years has come a certain devaluation of its recommendations".
The relative financial prosperity (at least, by the standards of emigration) Brodsky gave an opportunity to provide more material assistance.
Library of Congress elects Brodsky Poet Laureate of the USA in the years 1991-1992. This honorable, but traditionally rated as he developed an active advocacy work of poetry. His ideas led to the creation of American Poetry and Literacy Project (American project: "Poetry and Literacy"), during which 1993 year over a million free books of poetry have been distributed in schools, hotels, supermarkets, train stations, etc.. According to William Wadsworth, occupied with 1989 by 2001 g. as director of the Academy of American Poets, inauguralnaya speech Brodsky post Poet Laureate "was the cause of the transformation of America's view of the role of poetry in its culture". Shortly before his death, Brodsky became interested in the idea to found a Russian Academy in Rome. In the autumn 1995 , he turned to the mayor of Rome, a proposal to establish the Academy, where they could learn and work artists, writers and scientists from Russia. This idea was realized only after the poet's death. AT 2000 year memory Fellowship Fund Brodsky sent to Rome the first Russian poet and scholar, and 2003 g. - the first artist.
AT 1973 g. Authorized published the first book of translations of Brodsky's poetry in English - «Selected poems» (Selected poems) translations of George Klein and with a foreword by Auden. A second collection in English, «A Part of Speech» (Part of speech), comes in 1980 year; third, «To Urania» (To Urania), - at 1988. AT 1996 he released «So Forth» (Etc) - 4th collection of poems in English, prepared Brodsky. In the last two books includes both transfers and automatic translation from Russian, and poems, written in English. Over the years, Brodsky fewer trusted translations of his poems into English other translators; at the same time he increasingly wrote poems in English, although, in his own words, He did not consider himself a bilingual poet and claimed, what is for me, As I write poems in English, - it is rather a game ... ". Losev writes: "Linguistically and culturally Brodsky was Russian, As far as the identity, in his mature years, he has marginalized it to the lapidary formula, which has been repeatedly used: "I am Jewish, Russian poet and an American citizen, "".
In pyatisotstranichnom meeting of the English-language poetry Brodsky, issued after the author's death, no translation, made without its participation. But if his essays caused mostly positive critical responses, attitude to him as a poet in the English-speaking world has been far from straightforward. According to Valentina Polukhina "paradox of perception Brodsky in England is, that with the growing reputation Brodsky, essayist tightened attacks Brodsky poet and translator of his own poems ". Range of estimates was very wide, from extremely negative to praise, and prevaliroval, probably, critical bias. Roles Brodsky's poetry in English, translating his poetry into English, relationship Russian and English languages in his work devoted to, in particular, essay-memoirs Daniel Ueyssborta «From Russian with love».
Perestroika in the USSR, and it coincided with the awarding of the Nobel Prize Brodsky broke through the dam of silence at home, and shortly Publication poems and essays poured in Brodsky. first (apart from a few poems, leaked to the press in 1960) a selection of poems by Brodsky appeared in the December issue of "New World" of 1987 year. Up to this point the poet's work was known to a very limited audience due to the lists of poems in his native, circulated in samizdat. AT 1989 , Brodsky was rehabilitated by the process 1964 of the year.
AT 1992 year in Russia starts to go 4-volume collected works.
AT 1995 Brodsky was awarded the title of honorary citizen of St. Petersburg.
Followed by an invitation to return home. Brodsky postponed visit: it confused the publicity of the event, commemoration, media attention, which would inevitably be followed by his visit. Do not let the health and. One of the last arguments were: "The best part of me is already there - my poetry".
Death and burial
Saturday night 27 January 1996 in New York Brodsky was preparing to go to South Hadley, and gathered in a portfolio of books and manuscripts, the next day to take with you. Monday began the spring semester. Goodnight wife, Brodsky said, that he needs more work, and went up to his office. morning, on the floor of his office and found his wife. Brodsky was fully clothed. On the desk next to the glasses lay an open book - bilingual edition of the Greek epigrams. A heart, according to doctors, It stopped suddenly - heart attack, poet died on the night of 28 January 1996 of the year.
1 February 1996 at Grace Episcopal Parish Church (Grace Church) Brooklyn Heights, near Brodsky House, funeral held. The next day there was a temporary burial: the body in the coffin, upholstered metal, We were placed in a crypt in the cemetery at the church of the Holy Trinity (Trinity Church Cemetery), on the banks of the Hudson River, where it was stored until 21 June 1997 of the year. Sent a telegram to the proposal of the Russian Federation State Duma deputy Mr.. AT. Starovojtovoj bury the poet in St. Petersburg on Vasilevsky Island was rejected - "is meant to solve for Brodsky the question of returning to their homeland". A memorial service was held 8 March in Manhattan in the Episcopal Cathedral of St. John the Divine. Speeches were not. Poems read Czeslaw Milosz, Derek Walcott, Şejmas Xini, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Lev Losev, Anthony Hecht, Mark Strand, Rozanna Warren, Yevgeny Rein, Vladimir Uflyand, Tomas Venclova, Anatoly Naiman, Yakov Gordin, Maria Sotstsani-Brody and others. There was music by Haydn, Mozart, Pyorsella. AT 1973 year in the same cathedral Brodsky was one of the organizers of the memorial service memory WH Auden.
The decision on the final location of the poet burial took more than a year. According to Brodsky's widow Mary: "The idea of a funeral in Venice was expressed by one of his friends. This city, which the, except St. Petersburg, Joseph loved most. Besides, reasoning egoistically, Italy - my country, so it was better, my husband there and was buried. Bury him in Venice, it was easier, than in other cities, eg, in my hometown Kompinyano around Lucca. Venice is closer to Russia, and is a more affordable city ". Veronica and Benedetta Schiltz Cravero agreed with Venice authorities to place on the old cemetery on the island of San Michele.
21 June 1997 year at the San Michele cemetery in Venice hosted the reburial of the body of Joseph Brodsky. Originally they planned to bury the body of the poet in the Russian part of the cemetery between the graves of Stravinsky and Diaghilev, but it was impossible, Brodsky was not as orthodox. Also denied burial and the Catholic clergy. As a result, we decided to bury the body in the Protestant part of the cemetery. Resting place, it was noted a modest wooden cross with the name of Joseph Brodsky. A few years later at the tomb was installed tombstone of artist Vladimir Radunskaya.